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Technical Paper

Robust Optimal Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion with Driver-in-the-Loop

2012-09-24
2012-01-1903
Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability can be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the VSC command is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. This study focus on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input.
Journal Article

A Multi-Objective LMI-Based Antiroll Control System

2012-09-24
2012-01-1904
A long standing problem with heavy vehicle stability has been rollover. With the higher center of gravity, heavier loads, and narrower tracks (as compared to passenger vehicles), they have a lower rollover stability threshold. In this paper, a rollover stability control algorithm based on a two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and a three-DOF vehicle model for a two-axle truck was developed. First, the 3DOF model was used to predict the future Lateral load Transfer Rate (LTR). Using this LTR value, the dynamic rollover propensity was estimated. Then, a robust output feedback gain control rollover stability control algorithm based on the combination of active yaw control and active front steering control was developed. A H₂/H∞/poles placement multi-objective control strategy was developed based on the 2DOF reference model.
Journal Article

Tire Traction of Commercial Vehicles on Icy Roads

2014-09-30
2014-01-2292
Safety and minimal transit time are vital during transportation of essential commodities and passengers, especially in winter conditions. Icy roads are the worst driving conditions with the least available friction, leaving valuable cargo and precious human lives at stake. The study investigates the available friction at the tire-ice interface due to changes in key operational parameters. Experimental analysis of tractive performance of tires on ice was carried out indoor, using the terramechanics rig located at the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory (AVDL) at Virginia Tech. The friction-slip ratio curves obtained from indoor testing were inputted into TruckSIM, defining tire behavior for various ice scenarios and then simulating performance of trucks on ice. The shortcomings of simulations in considering the effects of all the operational parameters result in differences between findings of indoor testing and truck performance simulations.
Journal Article

Using Objective Vehicle-Handling Metrics for Tire Performance Evaluation and Selection

2013-04-08
2013-01-0743
This paper outlines the development of a simulation-based process for assessing the handling performance of a given set of tires on a specific vehicle. Based on force and moment data, a Pacejka tire model was developed for each of the five sets of tires used in this study. To begin with, simple handling metrics including under-steer gradient were calculated using cornering stiffness derived from the Pacejka model. This Pacejka tire model was subsequently combined with a 3DOF non-linear vehicle model to create a simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink®. Other handling metrics were calculated based on simulation results to step and sinusoidal (General Motors Company) steering inputs. Calculated performance metrics include yaw velocity overshoot, yaw velocity response time, lateral acceleration response time and steering sensitivity. In addition to this, the phase lag in lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the vehicle to a sinusoidal steering input were also calculated.
Journal Article

A Direct Yaw Control Algorithm for On- and Off-Road Yaw Stability

2011-04-12
2011-01-0183
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Simulator: Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2166
A graphical user interface (GUI) toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator (VSS) is developed in MATLAB to ease the use of this vehicle model and hopefully encourage its widespread application in the future. This toolbox uses the inherent MATLAB discrete-time solvers and is mainly based on Level-2 s-function design. This paper describes its built-in vehicle dynamics model based on multibody dynamics approach and nonlinear tire models, and traction/braking control systems including Cruise Control and Differential Braking systems. The built-in dynamics model is validated against CarSim 8 and the simulation results prove its accuracy. This paper illustrates the application of this new MATLAB toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator and discusses its development process, limitations, and future improvements.
Journal Article

Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

2011-04-12
2011-01-0963
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control and Emergency Roll Control for Vehicle Rollover Mitigation

2010-10-05
2010-01-1901
In this paper a yaw stability control algorithm along with an emergency roll control strategy have been developed. The yaw stability controller and emergency roll controller were both developed using linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle models. The yaw stability controller is based on Lyapunov stability criteria and uses vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate measurements to calculate the corrective yaw moment required to stabilize the vehicle yaw motion. The corrective yaw moment is then applied by means of a differential braking strategy in which one wheel is selected to be braked with appropriate brake torque applied. The emergency roll control strategy is based on a rollover coefficient related to vehicle static stability factor. The emergency roll control strategy utilizes vehicle lateral acceleration measurements to calculate the roll coefficient. If the roll coefficient exceeds some predetermined threshold value the emergency roll control strategy will deploy.
Journal Article

Optimal Direct Yaw Controller Design for Vehicle Systems with Human Driver

2011-09-13
2011-01-2149
Dynamic game theory brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In the presented methodology, vehicle stability is represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the direct yaw controller (DYC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the DYC control algorithm is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Based Stability Index Using a Right Sigmoid Membership Function

2009-10-06
2009-01-2871
The increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. It has been shown that the combination of the stability control systems with a predictive model-based stability index can dramatically improve the truck stability and hence road safety. In this respect the authors introduced a new Total Safety Margin (TSM) using a fuzzy logic-based stability index. That methodology utilized a smoothed step and provided acceptable results; however, continuing development has shown that a right sigmoid membership function distribution would provide more complete coverage of the fuzzy space. Compared to the more common triangular membership function which is discontinuous when the membership grade equals one, sigmoid functions facilitate obtaining smooth, continuously differentiable surfaces of a fuzzy model.
Technical Paper

A New Fuzzy Based Stability Index Using Predictive Vehicle Modeling and GPS Data

2008-10-07
2008-01-2597
The use of global positioning systems, or GPS, as a means of logistical organization for fleet vehicles has become more widespread in recent years. The system has the ability to track vehicle location, report on diagnostic trouble codes, and keep tabs on maintenance schedules thus helping to improve the safety and productivity of the vehicles and their operators. In addition, the increasing use and implementation of yaw and roll stability control in heavy trucks has contributed to an increased level of safety for truck drivers and other motorists. However, these systems require the vehicle to begin a yaw or roll event before they assist in maintaining control. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for utilizing the GPS signal in conjunction with the fuzzy based stability index to create a truly active safety system.
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