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Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Impurities Effect on DME Powered Diesel Engine System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0468
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
Technical Paper

Methodology of Lubricity Evaluation for DME Fuel based on HFRR

2011-11-08
2011-32-0651
The methodology of lubricity evaluation for DME fuel was established by special modified HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) such as Multi-Pressure/Temperature HFRR (MPT-HFRR). The obtained results were summarized as follows: The HFRR method is adaptable with DME fuel. There is no effect of the test pressure (up to 1.8 MPa) and the test temperature (up to 100°C) of MPT-HFRR on wear scar diameter. The results with MPT-HFRR can be applied at the sliding parts of the injection needle and the fuel supply pump's plungers which are secured lubricity by the boundary lubrication mode mainly and the mixed lubrication mode partially. Using the fatty-acid-based lubricity improver in amounts of approximately 100 ppm, the lubricity of DME, which has a lack of self-lubricity, is ensured as same as the diesel fuel equivalent level. There is a big deviation of measured wear scar diameter when the LI concentration is not enough.
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0062
It has been clarified that diesel fuel properties have a great effect on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a conventional diesel combustion regime. And as other diesel combustion regimes are applied in order to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, it can be supposed that the fuel properties also have significant effects. The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum diesel fuel properties for a premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion regime. In this paper, the effect of the auto-ignitability of diesel fuels on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption was evaluated using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine. In all experiments, fuels were injected using an electronically controlled, common-rail diesel fuel injector, and most experiments were conducted under high EGR conditions in order to reduce NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Japanese Standards for Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME: Investigation of Acid Generation in FAME Blended Diesel Fuels and Its Impact on Corrosion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3303
The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has conducted conformity tests of diesel fuel containing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) to amend diesel fuel standards in Japan. The objective of the tests is to examine appropriate specifications of diesel fuel containing FAME for automotive use for existing vehicles in the Japanese market. The conformity testing includes verification of fuel system component compatibility, tail pipe emissions, and characterization of the reliability and durability of the engine system, including the fuel injection system. In designing the conformity tests, the maximum FAME concentration was 5%. Most of the new standards are essentially equivalent to EN14214, but the total acid number (TAN) of specific acids, and oxidation stability of the new standards for diesel fuel containing FAME, are different from EN14214.
Technical Paper

A Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Diesel Vehicle Fueled with GTL

2007-01-23
2007-01-0028
In this study, diesel exhaust emission characteristics were investigated as GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel was applied to a heavy-duty diesel truck which had been developed to match a Japanese new long-term exhaust emission regulation (NOx < 2.0 g/kWh, PM < 0.027 g/kWh). The results in this study show that although the test vehicle has advanced technologies (e.g. high pressure fuel injection, oxidation catalyst, and urea-SCR aftertreatment system, etc.) which are applied to reduce diesel emissions, the neat GTL fuel has a great advantage to reduce particulate matter emissions and poly aromatic hydrocarbons. And regarding nano-size PM emissions, nuclei mode particles emitted during idling are significantly decreased by using the GTL fuel.
Technical Paper

Flame Front Speed of a Decane Cloud under Microgravity Conditions

1998-10-19
982566
In this study, a piezo disk was used to generate a cloud of n-decane fuel drops, which were mixed with air, then carried into a combustion chamber and ignited by a platinum wire. Microgravity data obtained at the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) were compared to normal gravity data, all at 1Atm pressure and 20+/-1°C initial temperature. Under normal gravity the lean limit was found to be 7.6x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.0), and from this point the flame front speed steadily increased from 20cm/s up to a maximum flame front speed of 210cm/s at a fuel drop density of about 14x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.85). Microgravity data showed a much richer lean limit - about 14.5x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.9), and the flame front speed did not gradually rise to a peak value. Instead, the measurements indicated a peak value of about 250cm/s, with a steep increase followed by a gradual decrease at richer fuel air ratios. A cellular flame structure appeared, and the cell size decreased as the mixture density increased.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Mechanism of a Fuel Droplet Cloud by Numerical Simulation

1998-10-19
982615
The combustion mechanism of a fuel droplet cloud was studied by numerical simulation. We investigated how the flame front speed and combustion products changed depending on the equivalence ratio and initial temperature. Modeling was performed using the KIVA-III software package, a three dimensional analysis software used mainly for internal combustion engine applications. The computational domain was a horizontal 1x1x100 cell sector of a spherical combustion chamber and the fuel was n-decane. Results showed that when all the fuel droplets were assumed to have evaporated, the flame front speed increased from 28 cm/s to 152 cm/s as the equivalence ratio increased. The maximum flame front speed was reached at ϕ=1.1, beyond which it decreased (at richer overall equivalence ratios). With a constant equivalence ratio, the flame front speed decreased near the outside region, because the unburned gas was compressed by the expanding burned gas.
Technical Paper

Flame Speed Measurements and Predictions of Propane, Butane and Autogas at High Pressures

1998-10-19
982448
Flame propagation at elevated pressures for propane, butane and autogas (20% propane and 80% butane by mass) were investigated. Flame arrival time was measured using ionization probes installed along the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber. Flame radius was also measured using a laser schlieren technique. Results showed that the flame front speed decreased with increasing initial pressure, and the initial pressure effect on maximum flame front speed was correlated by the relationship Sf = 175·pi-0.15 (for Φ=1.0). Characteristics of flame front speed between propane, butane and autogas were very similar, whereas at fuel-rich conditions flame front speed of butane and autogas were higher than that of propane. A thermodynamic model to predict flame radius and speed as a function of time was derived and tested using measured pressure-time curves.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Analysis from In-Cylinder Combustion of a DME-Fueled DI Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3192
To date, the DME combustion mechanism has been investigated by in-cylinder gas sampling, numerical calculations and observation of combustion radicals. It has been possible to quantify the emission intensities of in-cylinder combustion using a monochromator, and to observe the emitting species as images by using band-pass filters. However, the complete band images were not observed since the broadband (thermal) intensity may be stronger than band spectra intensities. Emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame have been measured using a spectroscope and photomultiplier. Results were compared to other fuels, such as n-butane and methane, then, in this study, to better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities near CH bands of an actual DI diesel engine fueled with DME were measured, and band spectra emitted from the engine were defined. Near TDC, emission intensities did not vary with wavelength.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Conditions on Driving Performance of a DME Diesel Vehicle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3193
Since dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel, it is possible to make it from natural gas, coal and biomass. It is a low-emission, oxygenated fuel, which does not generate soot in the exhaust. Therefore, it has recently been identified as a possible replacement for diesel fuel. In Japan, the new short-term emissions regulations will be enforced beginning in 2003, and the long-term emissions regulations are scheduled to be enforced in 2005. In order to meet these more stringent emissions regulations, existing diesel engines would not be as widely used in the near future as they currently are. This will thus bring about a more widespread use of DME engines due to their low emissions potential. Moreover, when the modification of existing diesel engines into DME engines is available at a moderate cost, the wider use of DME engines can be expected. This study targeted development and application of DME engine technology for diesel engine retrofit, in a used diesel vehicle.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas - Assessment of the Various Pressure and Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (VPT-HFRR) - LPG Blended Fuel for Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3092
In this research, a test apparatus (VPT-HFRR) for evaluating lubricity was manufactured at an arbitrary pressure according to the lubricity test method (HFRR) for diesel fuel. The lubricity of LPG blended fuel (LBF) for diesel engines was examined using VPT-HFRR., This was a value close to that of diesel fuel, and when a suitable lubricity had been maintained, it was checked. Prototype trucks were manufactured and their durability was examined. After a run of 70,000km or more, no serious trouble had occurred, and when LBF was maintained at a suitable lubricity, it was checked.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of DME Diesel Engine With Inline Injection Pump Developed for DME

2004-06-08
2004-01-1863
The engine performance and exhaust characteristics of the DME-powered diesel engine with an injection system developed for DME were investigated. The injection pump is an inline type that can inject double amount of DME fuel compared to the base injection pump because the calorific value of DME is about half lower than that of diesel fuel. The effect of injection timing on engine performances such as thermal efficiency, engine torque, and exhaust characteristics were investigated. Maximum torque and power with DME could be achieved the same or greater level compared to diesel fuel operation. Considering over all engine performances, the best dynamic injection timings without EGR were -3, -3, -6 and -9 deg. ATDC in 1120, 1680, 2240 and 2800 rpm engine speeds respectively in this experiment.
Technical Paper

Study on Removal of PM and NOx in Diesel Exhaust by Using DC Corona Discharge

2002-05-06
2002-01-1660
In order to remove the diesel particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel exhaust, the gas is passed through a corona discharge collector for PM and another corona discharge device for NOx oxidation. With the PM collector, PM is accumulated on the central electrode, after that, it is removed by incineration technique. NOx concentration is decreased by oxidation to HNO3. In this study, these corona discharge reactors were coupled for removal of PM and NOx in progression, and attempted to remove these emissions in a slipstream of 14 liters/min of an experimental diesel engine and an actual vehicle, respectively. In case of the experimental test engine, it is found that nearly 100% and 15% of the PM and NOx emissions were removed even at a low input power of 26W (1560 J/L specific energy deposition). In the vehicle tests 1) a PM removal rate of 60% is obtained at an input power of over 40W, 2) a NOx removal rate of 97% is obtained at an input power of over 100W.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of an LPG DI SI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-05-06
2002-01-1648
This work aimed to develop an LPG fueled direct injection SI engine, especially in order to improve the exhaust emission quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional engine. In-cylinder direct injection engines developed recently worldwide utilizes the stratified charge formation technique at low load, whereas at high load, a close-to-homogeneous charge is formed. Thus, compared to a conventional port injection engine, a significant improvement of fuel consumption and power can be achieved. To implement such a combustion strategy, the stratification of mixture charge is very important, and an understanding of its combustion process is also inevitably necessary. In this work, a numerical simulation was performed using a CFD code (KIVA-3), where the shape of a combustion chamber, swirl intensity, injection timing and duration, etc. were varied and their effects on the mixture formation and combustion process were investigated.
Technical Paper

The Possibility of Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a Fuel of Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1706
In this study, engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of compression ignition engine fueled with GTL were investigated by comparison with diesel fuel. Diesel engine could be operated fueled with GTL without any special modify for the test engine. With the high cetane number of GTL, the ignition lag was shorter, and the combustion started earlier than that of diesel fuel. Brake thermal efficiency operated with GTL increased at middle load conditions due to incomplete combustion emission such as CO and THC were lower than that of diesel fuel operation. NOx emission with GTL was comparable to diesel fuel, and there was a little decrease at high load. With GTL, soot emission was lower than with diesel fuel at above middle load condition. It seemed to be a reason of soot reduction that there was little sulphur contained in GTL.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of the Combustion Process in DME Compression Ignition Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1707
For better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of DME, combustion radicals of a direct injection DME-Fueled compression ignition engine were observed using a spectroscopic method. In this initial report, the emission intensity of OH, CH, CHO, C2 and NO radicals was measured using a photomultiplier. These radicals could be measured with wavelength resolution (half-width) as about 3.3 nm. OH and CHO radicals appeared first, and then CH radical emission was detected. After that, the combustion radicals were observed using a high-speed image intensified video camera with band-pass filter. All of radicals were able to observe as images with half-width as 6 or about 10 nm. Rich DME leaked from nozzle was burning at the end of combustion. Therefore, the second light emission of C2 radical after the main combustion was observed.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics for Various Ambient Pressure of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2002-05-06
2002-01-1711
Recently, dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting much attention as a clean alternative fuel, since the thermal efficiency of DME powered diesel engine is comparable to diesel fuel operation and soot free combustion can be achieved. In this experiment, the effect of ambient pressure on DME spray was investigated with observation of droplet size such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) by the shadowgraph and image processing method. The higher ambient pressure obstructs the growth of DME spray, therefore faster breakup was occurred, and liquid column was thicker with increasing the ambient pressure. Then engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME diesel engine were investigated with various compression ratios. The minimum compression ratio for the easy start and stable operation was obtained at compression ratio of about 12.
Technical Paper

Combustion Radicals Observation of DME Engine by Spectroscopic Method

2002-03-04
2002-01-0863
For better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of DME, combustion radicals of a direct injection DME-Fueled compression ignition engine were observed using a spectroscopic method. In this initial report, the emission intensity of OH, CH, CHO, C2 and NO radicals was measured using a photomultiplier. These radicals could be measured with wavelength resolution (half-width) of about 3.3 nm. OH and CHO radicals appeared first, and then CH radical emission was detected. After that, the combustion radicals were observed using a high-speed image intensified video camera. C2 and CH radicals were able to observe roughly as images. However, the emission intensity of DME combustion was not strong enough to take OH, CHO and NO radical images. CH radical combustion occurred near the chamber wall and burned like a ring, as combustion progress, indicating active heat release occurred near the chamber wall.
Technical Paper

Spray and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Biodiesel Engine Operating with the Blend of Plant Oil and DME

2002-03-04
2002-01-0864
As an effective method to solve the global warming and the energy crisis, the research has been carried out for the adaptability of plant oil as an alternative fuel for Diesel engine. But there are the problems of engine performance and exhaust emissions owing to the high viscosity and low volatility, when the plant oil is used as a fuel. In order to eliminate these problems, spray characteristics of the DME (Dimethyl ether) blended plant oil has been examined by using the image processing based on the shadowgraph methodology. Results show that the optimum mixing ratio of the blend is about 50:50 (by weight %). Thereafter, experiments have been conducted with a DI Diesel engine using the DME blended plant oil, and compared the exhaust emissions with Diesel, DME and transesterified fuel operation. From the results, it can be concluded that the combustion characteristics of DME blended plant oil are comparable to Diesel fuel.
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