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Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Impurities Effect on DME Powered Diesel Engine System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0468
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
Technical Paper

Methodology of Lubricity Evaluation for DME Fuel based on HFRR

2011-11-08
2011-32-0651
The methodology of lubricity evaluation for DME fuel was established by special modified HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) such as Multi-Pressure/Temperature HFRR (MPT-HFRR). The obtained results were summarized as follows: The HFRR method is adaptable with DME fuel. There is no effect of the test pressure (up to 1.8 MPa) and the test temperature (up to 100°C) of MPT-HFRR on wear scar diameter. The results with MPT-HFRR can be applied at the sliding parts of the injection needle and the fuel supply pump's plungers which are secured lubricity by the boundary lubrication mode mainly and the mixed lubrication mode partially. Using the fatty-acid-based lubricity improver in amounts of approximately 100 ppm, the lubricity of DME, which has a lack of self-lubricity, is ensured as same as the diesel fuel equivalent level. There is a big deviation of measured wear scar diameter when the LI concentration is not enough.
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

Japanese Standards for Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME: Investigation of Acid Generation in FAME Blended Diesel Fuels and Its Impact on Corrosion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3303
The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has conducted conformity tests of diesel fuel containing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) to amend diesel fuel standards in Japan. The objective of the tests is to examine appropriate specifications of diesel fuel containing FAME for automotive use for existing vehicles in the Japanese market. The conformity testing includes verification of fuel system component compatibility, tail pipe emissions, and characterization of the reliability and durability of the engine system, including the fuel injection system. In designing the conformity tests, the maximum FAME concentration was 5%. Most of the new standards are essentially equivalent to EN14214, but the total acid number (TAN) of specific acids, and oxidation stability of the new standards for diesel fuel containing FAME, are different from EN14214.
Technical Paper

A Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Diesel Vehicle Fueled with GTL

2007-01-23
2007-01-0028
In this study, diesel exhaust emission characteristics were investigated as GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel was applied to a heavy-duty diesel truck which had been developed to match a Japanese new long-term exhaust emission regulation (NOx < 2.0 g/kWh, PM < 0.027 g/kWh). The results in this study show that although the test vehicle has advanced technologies (e.g. high pressure fuel injection, oxidation catalyst, and urea-SCR aftertreatment system, etc.) which are applied to reduce diesel emissions, the neat GTL fuel has a great advantage to reduce particulate matter emissions and poly aromatic hydrocarbons. And regarding nano-size PM emissions, nuclei mode particles emitted during idling are significantly decreased by using the GTL fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Conditions on Driving Performance of a DME Diesel Vehicle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3193
Since dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetic fuel, it is possible to make it from natural gas, coal and biomass. It is a low-emission, oxygenated fuel, which does not generate soot in the exhaust. Therefore, it has recently been identified as a possible replacement for diesel fuel. In Japan, the new short-term emissions regulations will be enforced beginning in 2003, and the long-term emissions regulations are scheduled to be enforced in 2005. In order to meet these more stringent emissions regulations, existing diesel engines would not be as widely used in the near future as they currently are. This will thus bring about a more widespread use of DME engines due to their low emissions potential. Moreover, when the modification of existing diesel engines into DME engines is available at a moderate cost, the wider use of DME engines can be expected. This study targeted development and application of DME engine technology for diesel engine retrofit, in a used diesel vehicle.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of an LPG DI SI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-05-06
2002-01-1648
This work aimed to develop an LPG fueled direct injection SI engine, especially in order to improve the exhaust emission quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional engine. In-cylinder direct injection engines developed recently worldwide utilizes the stratified charge formation technique at low load, whereas at high load, a close-to-homogeneous charge is formed. Thus, compared to a conventional port injection engine, a significant improvement of fuel consumption and power can be achieved. To implement such a combustion strategy, the stratification of mixture charge is very important, and an understanding of its combustion process is also inevitably necessary. In this work, a numerical simulation was performed using a CFD code (KIVA-3), where the shape of a combustion chamber, swirl intensity, injection timing and duration, etc. were varied and their effects on the mixture formation and combustion process were investigated.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0764
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
Technical Paper

Development of Retrofit DME Diesel Engine Operating with Rotary Distributor Fuel Injection Pump

2003-03-03
2003-01-0758
In order to reduce environmental disruption due to exhaust PM and NOx emissions from diesel engines of dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed the use for the next generation vehicles, because the discharge of the atmospheric pollutants is less. In this study, DME is used to fuel a retrofit type diesel engine, and operational tests were carried out using a rotary distributor fuel injection pump. In this experiment, comparison and examination of the effects of fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and injection timing. When using DME as an alternative fuel, the fuel temperature affects engine operation. And diameter of the injector nozzle hole and larger injection quantity is regarded as factors affecting the improvement in engine performance. In addition, for understanding the DME spray in the cylinder, DME was sprayed in a constant volume chamber where atmospheric temperature and pressure increased simultaneously, and the result is compared and examined with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Conditions on Mixture Formation Process in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1831
The mixture formation process in a premixed compression ignition engine was numerically analyzed. This study aimed to find out effective injection conditions for lean mixture formation with high homogeneity, since the NOx and soot emissions in the engine are closely related to the mixture homogeneity. To calculate fuel spray behavior, a practical computer code GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube) was employed. In a model for the premixed compression ignition engine, the effects of injection parameters, such as injection timing, initial droplet size, spray angle, injection velocity, nozzle type (pintle and hole) and injection position / direction, on the mixture homogeneity near ignition timing (or TDC) were investigated. To evaluate the homogeneity of the mixture, an index was defined based on the spatial distribution of fuel mass fraction. The fuel vapor mass fractions as well as the homogeneity indices, obtained as a function of time, were compared under various boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

KIVA Simulation for Mixture Formation Processes in an In-Cylinder Injected LPG SI Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2805
This is a preliminary work for the development of a stratified combustion engine using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) as an alternative fuel. The main objective of this research is to find out the optimizing engine parameters from the viewpoint of mixture formation with the aid of simulation, where the KIVA_ code was used. The combustion characteristics of LPG and gasoline are different because of their different physical properties. Therefore, the numerical simulation was performed for optimizing engine parameters by changing the piston and cylinder geometry, as well as injection conditions. Result showed that geometry of combustion chamber has a great influence on mixture stratification. Also, weaker swirl seems to be better for mixture formation in the vicinity of the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of DME Blended Biodiesel Oil

2001-09-24
2001-01-3636
Spray characteristics of biodiesel oil was investigated as it can be applied to industrial combustion systems, including internal combustion engines. Shadowgraph methodology using Greenfield system was used to take some images of the spray and to measure droplet size. A high speed video camera was also used to take a picture of spray penetration and its angle. From the results, it shows that DME blended biodiesel oil has almost the same droplet size as conventional diesel oil, when the blended DME ratio is over 50% by weight. It is also shown that there exists optimum fuel injection pressure that has minimum droplet size when the ambient gas pressure is constant.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial In-Cylinder Flow Field on Mixture Formation in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0331
To find more effective lean mixture preparation methods for smokeless and low NOx combustion, a numerical study of the effects of in-cylinder flow field before injection on mixture formation in a premixed compression ignition engine was conducted. Premixed compression ignition combustion is a very attractive method to reduce both NOx and soot emissions, but it still has some problems, such as high HC and CO emissions. In case of early direct injection, it is important to avoid wall wetting by spray impingement, which can cause higher HC and CO emissions. Since it is not easy to examine the effects of initial flow and injection parameters on mixture formation over the wide range by practical engine tests, a computer program named “GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube)” code was used to simulate the in-cylinder phenomena before autoignition.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane

1992-02-01
920690
The authors tried to use LP gas, mainly butane, as the main fuel of diesel engines to reduce soot and to maintain high thermal efficiency. LP gas was injected in the direction of the intake valve directly as a spray to prevent knocking and to preserve high charging efficiency. The newly developed electronic fuel injection provided accurate fuel control and injection timing. As a result, the dual-fuel operation produced high thermal efficiency almost identical to that of diesel engines. Soot in engine exhaust was almost negligible. Three quarters of maximum output was obtained with butane, and only small amount of gas oil for idling, in spite of an high compression ratio of 17 for gas engines. Increasing the proportion of gas oil resulted in maximum output from a diesel engine and almost no soot output.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Injector Nozzle Geometry on Internal and External Flow Characteristics

1997-02-24
970354
The effects of upstream conditions, such as nozzle and entrance shapes, on external flow characteristics continue to challenge fuel injection modeling efforts, particularly in the case of high-pressure diesel sprays. In this research, flow details were investigated both experimentally and numerically in a fuel injector nozzle orifice using an integrated approach. Calculations using the SIMPLE algorithm were first performed for the scaled-up experimental nozzles with various length to diameter ratios (L/d). Measurements of internal flow velocities for these nozzles were made by laser Doppler velocimetry in order to verify the computational results. Mean and fluctuating velocities and discharge coefficients were obtained at various Reynolds numbers. The mean turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy for a sharp inlet nozzle were generally higher than for a round inlet nozzle, except for the near-wall region beginning at about one nozzle diameter from the entrance.
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