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Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines

To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ignition Delay of Diesel Fuel Spray via Numerical Simulation

To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a discrete droplet spray model (DDM) coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions. Predicted results show that the fuel mixture injected at the start of injection, which travels along midway between the spray axis and the spray periphery, contributes heavily to the first ignition in a spray. The equivalence ratio and temperature of the first ignited mixture are kept nearly constant until the start of hot ignition. The temperature of the first ignited mixture is kept at a constant value of higher temperature than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture before the hot ignition starts. The equivalence ratio of the first ignited mixture is around 1.6 at initial gas temperatures between 750 K and 850 K.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Rate of Multiple Fuel Injection with Diesel Fuel and DME

The accuracy of the injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method in the measurement of multiple injection rate and amount was calibrated using a small cam driven piston that is driven by an electric motor. For the pre- or early-injection, a sensor with a high sensitivity can be applied to measure the small pressure increase due to the small injection amount. In case of the multiple injection that has the post and/or late injection, a pressure sensor with a low sensitivity must cover not only the large pressure increase due to the main injection but also the small pressure increase due to the post and/or late injection because the output of the high sensitivity sensor is saturated after the main injection. So the linearity of the low sensitivity pressure sensor was calibrated with the cam driven piston prior to the experiment with the actual injection system.
Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Measurement Tool for Fuel Injection Rate in Diesel Engines

A new instrument for the measurement of fuel injection rate in diesel engines was developed. The instrument, whose measurement principle is based on the Zeuch's method, i.e., the constant volume method, incorporates a device for the precise calibration of the volume elasticity of the fuel. This instrument was proved experimentally to have a capability of measuring injection rate with ± 1% accuracy up to an injection pump rotating speed of 2500rpm.
Technical Paper

Fast Burning and Reduced Soot Formation via Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection

The relation between the characteristics of a non-evaporating spray and those of a corresponding frame achieved in a rapid compression machine was investigated experimentally. The fuel injection pressure was changed in a range of 55 to 260 MPa and the other injection parameters such as orifice diameter and injection duration were changed systematically. The characteristics of the non-evaporating spray such as the Sauter mean diameter and the mean excess air ratio of the spray were measured by an image analysis technique. The time required for a pressure rise due to combustion was taken as an index to characterize the flame. It was concluded that the mean excess air ratio of a spray is the major factor which controls the burning rate and that the high injection pressure is effective in shortening the combustion duration and reducing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Spray Evaporation in Reciprocating Engines

A theoretical model for predicting the evaporation process of liquid fuel sprays in both diesel and S.I. stratified charge engines is presented: The injected liquid fuel is assumed to break up into droplets with a certain time delay which is determined through careful experiments on the heat absorption process of injected fuel in a high temperature, high pressure inert atmosphere. The evaporation, heat absorption, and motion of these droplets are computed, together with the change of gas conditions inside the spray, by solving a coupled system of equations made up of heat and mass balance between droplets and gas. The effects of such parameters as the surrounding gas conditions, fuel properties, and spray characteristics on evaporation are investigated by the model. Reference is also made to the application of a predicted result to the calculation of burning rate in a direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on Precise Measurement of Diesel Fuel Injection Rate

An experimental evaluation of the reliability of the Zeuch's method was carried out. The following were derived: 1) cavitation limits the minimum back pressure available; 2) the injection rate measured by the Zeuch's method agrees with that by the W.Bosch's method; 3) the effect of dynamic pressure of the injected fuel jet has a negligible effect on the pressure sensor which is attached to the chamber wall; and 4) the high-frequency noise after the end of injection observed in the Zeuch's measurement can be effectively removed by either a low-pass filter or an inverse Fourier transform processing.