Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 10 of 10
Technical Paper

Measurement of Droplet Diameter and Fuel Concentration in a Non-Evaporating Diesel Spray by Means of an image Analysis of Shadow Photographs

A new method was developed which measures the atomization characteristics of a non-evaporating, axisymmetric diesel spray: The film image density of the high speed focused shadow photographs of a spray was analyzed based on the incident light extinction principle, and the Sauter mean diameter and the fuel concentration distribution were calculated from the image data and the measured injection rate with the help of the onion peeling model. The measured Sauter mean diameter showed good agreement with the diameter measured by the conventional immersion method, and also the measured fuel concentration distribution along the spray axis was proved to coincide well with the predicted result by Che one dimentional quasi-steady jet model except at a region near the spray tip.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Rate of Heat Release of an Axisymmetrical Diesel Flame in a Rapid Compression Machine

A phenomenological model for predicting the rate of heat release of an axisymmetrical diesel flame which was achieved in a rapid compression machine has been proposed: Basing on the experimental observations, authors have introduced a new expression about the effects of abrupt thermal expansion due to the initial combustion on the air entrainment. A simple probability density function was also employed to express the distribution of the local equivalence ratio in the flame. The predicted rate of heat release showed good agreement with the experimental results in the diffusion combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine by Means of Image Analysis of Nega-Color Photographs

A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in a Transient Jet

To understand further the mixing process between the injected fuel and air in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, the turbulent mixing process in a one-phase, two-dimensional transient jet was theoretically studied using the discrete vortex simulation. First, the simulation model was evaluated by comparisons between calculated and experimental data on two-dimensional turbulent jets. Second, the trajectories of the injected fluid elements marked with different colors were graphically demonstrated. Also the process of entrainment of the surrounding fluid into the jet was visually presented using colored tracers.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Fuel Vapor Concentration in an Unsteady Evaporating Spray via a 2-D Mie-Scattering Imaging Technique

The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of In-Cylinder Flow in a Motored Engine

A prediction model of the cycle-to-cycle variation of the in-cylinder flow in IC engines which employs the time averaged k-ε turbulence model is proposed. The concept is based on an assumption that the power spectrum of the cycle-to-cycle variation can be deduced from the power spectra of both the mean velocity and turbulence intensity. To validate this model, in-cylinder velocity measurement in a transparent cylinder engine with a 2-valve cylinder-head is made using an LDV system. Comparisons of in-cylinder flow fields between the calculation and measurement show a good agreement in the cycle-to-cycle variation as well as the turbulence intensity. Finally, this model is applied to three kinds of flow fields to examine how the cycle-to-cycle variation may be effected. As a result, it is found that the swirl flow is effective to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation, while the tumbling flow enhances the turbulence generation around the compression TDC.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

Application of Laser Doppler Anemometry to a Motored Diesel Engine

Some problems associated with applying LDA to the measurement of air motion in the engine’s cylinder are studied experimentally for both the forward and the back scattering technique in a motored diesel engine. The effects of the doppler broadening caused by the velocity gradient and the diameters of the scattering particles are discossed. The decaying process and the structure of the in-cylinder flow field are studied using the measurements of the main flow velocity, the turbulent intensity and macro scales and normalised power spectrum of the turbulence. A comparison measurement is also made between the forward scattering and the back scattering techniques.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion of Fuel Droplets in an Unsteady Spray via Discrete Vortex Method

The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.