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Technical Paper

Development of a High Sensitivity and High Response Portable Smoke Meter

2014-04-01
2014-01-1580
The filtration efficiency of a DPF drops when it suffers a failure such as melting and cracks during regeneration. And then, on-board diagnostics (OBD) device has become needed worldwide to detect a DPF failure. In the development of an OBD soot sensor, evaluation of the sensor demands a portable instrument which can measure the soot concentration for on-board and in-field use. Some of the emission regulations require the in-field emission measurements under normal in-use operation of a vehicle. This study is intended to develop a high sensitivity and high response portable smoke meter for on-board soot measurements and a reference to OBD soot sensors under development. The smoke meter accommodates a 650 nm laser diode, and its principle is based on light extinction in high soot concentration range and backward light scattering for low soot concentration measurement.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

An Air Cell DI Diesel Engine and Its Soot Emission Characteristics

1983-09-12
831297
A DI diesel engine with an air cell was developed as one of the combustion systems for reducing soot emission from diesel engines: The air is accumulated in the air cell during the compression stroke and is injected into the main chamber during a period after the end of injection. The air jet stirs the stagnant flame and promotes soot oxidation. A comparative experiments with the conventional system made it clear that the air-cell system effectively reduces soot emission at a medium and high load condition.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Droplet Diameter and Fuel Concentration in a Non-Evaporating Diesel Spray by Means of an image Analysis of Shadow Photographs

1984-02-01
840276
A new method was developed which measures the atomization characteristics of a non-evaporating, axisymmetric diesel spray: The film image density of the high speed focused shadow photographs of a spray was analyzed based on the incident light extinction principle, and the Sauter mean diameter and the fuel concentration distribution were calculated from the image data and the measured injection rate with the help of the onion peeling model. The measured Sauter mean diameter showed good agreement with the diameter measured by the conventional immersion method, and also the measured fuel concentration distribution along the spray axis was proved to coincide well with the predicted result by Che one dimentional quasi-steady jet model except at a region near the spray tip.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Rate of Heat Release of an Axisymmetrical Diesel Flame in a Rapid Compression Machine

1984-02-01
840519
A phenomenological model for predicting the rate of heat release of an axisymmetrical diesel flame which was achieved in a rapid compression machine has been proposed: Basing on the experimental observations, authors have introduced a new expression about the effects of abrupt thermal expansion due to the initial combustion on the air entrainment. A simple probability density function was also employed to express the distribution of the local equivalence ratio in the flame. The predicted rate of heat release showed good agreement with the experimental results in the diffusion combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine by Means of Image Analysis of Nega-Color Photographs

1981-02-01
810183
A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
Technical Paper

Particulate Formation and Flame Structure in Diesel Engines

1989-02-01
890436
The present paper describes the particulate formation in diesel flames considering the flame structure and its similarity to that of gaseous turbulent diffusion flames. A comparison of spatial variations of soot concentration, equivalence ratio and flame temperature between diesel flames and turbulent diffusion flames reveals the facts that soot particles are mostly farmed in a region where the equivalence ratio is near stoichiometric and the flame temperature is the highest in both flames, and that in diesel flames this region exists generally near the flame tip. A close inspection of high speed photographs of diesel flames suggests the three major routes of soot emission from diesel engines: quenching of flamelets detached from the flame tip due to 1) the flame impingement onto the wall; and 2) cooling of the flamelets by the bulk air; and 3) survival of soot containing flamelets inside the flame.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Fuel Vapor Concentration in an Unsteady Evaporating Spray via a 2-D Mie-Scattering Imaging Technique

1993-10-01
932653
The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Pressure Injection on Soot Formation Processes in a Rapid Compression Machine to Simulate Diesel Flames

1987-09-01
871610
The characteristics of diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 30 to 110 MPa. Measurements included the spray form and Sauter mean diameter of a non-evaporating spray, the liquid phase penetration of an evaporating spray and the visualization of sooting zone in a flame. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment of non-evaporating spray and that the liquid phase penetration of evaporating spray is hardly affected by injection pressure, demonstrating a promotion of evaporation with injection pressure. Visualization of the sooting zone in a flame made it clear that high pressure injection is advantageous in reducing soot formation and shortening the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for the Measurement of Sauter Mean Diameter of Droplets in Unsteady Dense Sprays

1989-02-01
890316
A new technique is developed for the in-situ measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in non-evaporating transient dense sprays. This method analyzes the image of a shadowpicture of a spray based on the incident light extinction principle, and allows the sizing of Sauter mean diameter of whole droplets in a transient spray with any shape. In addition, this method allows the measurement of the local droplet size in a quasi-steady region of an axisymmetric spray if the conservation equations regarding mass and momentum are included in the calculation and data analysis. A calibration was carried out using glass beads as test particles: this was proved to have an accuracy of Sauter mean diameter measurement within 10%, on average. Applications of the new technique to both diesel and gasoline (EFI) sprays have been made.
Technical Paper

Mixing Enhancement in Diesel-Like Flames via Flame Impingement on Turbulence-Generating Plates

1992-10-01
922210
Soot concentration is very high in the periphery near the head of an unsteady spray flame which is achieved in a quiescent atmosphere in a rapid compression machine. To reduce soot concentration in this region, it was intended to improve fuel-air mixing by letting the flame impinge on a turbulence-generating plate. Two types of turbulence-generating plates, one donut-type, the other cross-type, were tested. Soot concentration in the flame was imaged using the laser shadow technique. The effect of injection pressure on soot reduction by the flame impingement was also investigated. The overall soot concentration is reduced significantly in the case when the flame impinges on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 50 mm (333 nozzle diameters) from the nozzle exit. The flame impingement on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 333 nozzle diameters makes soot reduction little dependent on injection pressures.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

1991-02-01
910223
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

Fast Burning and Reduced Soot Formation via Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection

1991-02-01
910225
The relation between the characteristics of a non-evaporating spray and those of a corresponding frame achieved in a rapid compression machine was investigated experimentally. The fuel injection pressure was changed in a range of 55 to 260 MPa and the other injection parameters such as orifice diameter and injection duration were changed systematically. The characteristics of the non-evaporating spray such as the Sauter mean diameter and the mean excess air ratio of the spray were measured by an image analysis technique. The time required for a pressure rise due to combustion was taken as an index to characterize the flame. It was concluded that the mean excess air ratio of a spray is the major factor which controls the burning rate and that the high injection pressure is effective in shortening the combustion duration and reducing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Application of Laser Doppler Anemometry to a Motored Diesel Engine

1980-09-01
800965
Some problems associated with applying LDA to the measurement of air motion in the engine’s cylinder are studied experimentally for both the forward and the back scattering technique in a motored diesel engine. The effects of the doppler broadening caused by the velocity gradient and the diameters of the scattering particles are discossed. The decaying process and the structure of the in-cylinder flow field are studied using the measurements of the main flow velocity, the turbulent intensity and macro scales and normalised power spectrum of the turbulence. A comparison measurement is also made between the forward scattering and the back scattering techniques.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Application of the Two–Color Method to the Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines

1980-09-01
800970
Flame temperature and KL factor in a DI diesel engine are measured optically by the two-color method. Some differences are observed between the measure values at visible and infrared wavelengths. These differences are caused by: (1) effect of change of index α in time at infrared wavelength during combustion period; (2) effect of distributions of temperature and soot concentration along optical path; and (3) effect of reflection at the walls. The optical characteristics and some other problems on the instrumentation of the two-color method at both wavelengths are also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Some Engine Variables on Measured Rates of Air Entrainment and Heat Release in a DI Diesel Engine

1980-02-01
800253
The rate of air entrainment into the flame and the rate of heat release are thermodynamically calculated in a DI diesel engine: A two-zone model is proposed which uses as input data three measured values of cylinder pressure, flame temperature, and injection rate. The correlations between both rates under various conditions make it clear that the combustion during early and main periods of diffusion combustion is mainly controlled by air entrainment into the flame. The effects of injection pressure, piston configuration, and swirl intensity on the air entrainment are also studied. And the extent of mixing in the flame is evaluated by the equivalence ratio in the flame which is also obtained by the same model. The trends of exhausted NO and soot concentrations well correlate with the equivalence ratios in the flame and measured flame temperatures under all conditions studied.
Technical Paper

A Gas Sampling Study on the Formation Processes of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine

1980-02-01
800254
The concentrations of soot, NO and the other combustion products were measured by incylinder gas sampling in a DI diesel engine. The effects of injection timing, swirl ratio, and combustion chamber geometry on the formation and emission processes of soot and NO were studied. The following results were obtained: (1) Soot is promptly formed in the flame during the early combustion period where the equivalence ratio in the flame is high over 1.0. Thereafter almost all the formed soot is swiftly burnd up by oxidation during the middle combustion period. This process mainly determines the exhaust soot concentration. (2) NO is formed in the flame during the early and middle combustion period where the flame temperature is high over 2000 K. The highest NO concentration is observed at the flame tip swept by the air swirl. Though the concentration of the formed NO decreases by dilusion it nearly constant during the later combustion period.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Time and Space Resolved Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in a D. I. Diesel Engine by the Two-Color Method

1979-02-01
790491
The two-color method regarding the visible wavelength radiation from soot particles in flames was closely studied in order to establish it as a measuring technique of the flame temperature and soot concentration in diesel engines. The accuracy of the temperature calibration of the measuring equipment was assured by a newly developed high temperature black body furnace and a standard tungsten lamp. The emissivity of diesel flames, which is the most important value in this method, was investigated through both the spectroscopic analysis of soot sampled from a diesel flame and the comparative measurements between the two-color method and the emission-absorption method. The examined two-color method was applied to a direct injection diesel engine. The time and space resolved values of temperature and soot concentration were obtained for the first time.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Diesel Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine

1991-09-01
911845
According to previous papers on the combustion process in LHR diesel engines the combustion seems to deteriorate in LHR diesel engines. However it has been unclear whether this was caused by the high temperature gas or high temperature combustion chamber walls. This study was intended to investigate the effect of gas temperature on the rate of heat release through the heat release analysis and other measurements using a rapid compression-expansion machine. Experiments conducted at high gas temperatures which was achieved by the employment of oxygen-argon-helium mixture made it clear that the combustion at a high gas temperature condition deteriorated actually and this was probably due to the poorer mixing rate because of the increase in gas viscosity at a high gas temperature condition.
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