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Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Minimally Processed Methanol in a Diesel Engine Without Ignition Assist

1994-03-01
940326
Mixtures of methanol, water and heavier alcohols, simulating “raw’ methanol at various levels of processing, were tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus (CVCA) and in a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. The ignition characteristics determined in the CVCA indicated that the heavier alcohols have beneficial effects on the auto-ignition quality of the fuels, as compared to pure methanol. Water, at up up to 10 percent by volume, has little effect on the ignition quality. In all cases, however, the cetane numbers of the alcohol mixtures were very low. The same fuels were tested in a single cylinder engine, set-up in a configuration similar to current two-valve DI engines, except that the compression ratio was increased to 19:1. Pure methanol and five different blends of alcohols and water were tested in the engine at five different speed-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Exhaust Emissions in Underground Coal Mines - Single-Cylinder Engine Optimization for Water-in-Fuel Miscroemulsions

1983-02-01
830553
The increased use of diesel-powered equipment in underground mines has prompted interest in reducing their exhaust pollutants. Control of particulate emissions without substantial penalties in other emissions or fuel consumption is necessary. This paper describes test results on a prechaaber, naturally-aspirated, four-cycle diesel engine in which two different concentrations of water-in-fuel emulsions were run. The independent variables comprising the test matrix were fuel, speed, load, injection timing, injection rate, and compression ratio. The dependent variables of the experiment included particulate and gaseous emissions and engine thermal efficiency. Regression analysis was performed on the data to determine how particulate emissions were affected by fuel and engine parameters. Results of this analysis indicated that substantial reductions in particulate emissions could be obtained by utilizing water-in-fuel emulsions.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay as Determined in a Variable-Compression Ratio Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1987-11-01
872036
A variable-compression ratio, direct-injection diesel engine (VCR) has been designed and assembled at Southwest Research Institute with the intention of examining the current procedures for rating the ignition quality of diesel fuels and the meaning of ignition delay as an indicator of ignition and combustion quality. Using a slightly modified ASTM D 613 procedure, the engine has been used to rate the ignition quality of 43 different test fuels. The ratings obtained in the VCR engine are compared to the corresponding rating obtained using the standard cetane rating procedure. Some of the problems associated with the standard procedure became apparent during these experiments. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the problems and the advantages of a proposed VCR-based rating procedure.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0054
This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oils as Alternative Diesel Fuels: Degradation of Pure Triglycerides During the Precombustion Phase in a Reactor Simulating a Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920194
Vegetable oils are candidates for alternative fuels in diesel engines. These oils, such as soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, cottonseed, and peanut, consist of various triglycerides. The chemistry of the degradation of vegetable oils when used as alternate diesel fuels thus corresponds to that of triglycerides. To study the chemistry occurring during the precombustion phase of a vegetable oil injected into a diesel engine, a reactor simulating a diesel engine was constructed. Pure triglycerides were injected into the reactor in order to determine differences in the precombustion behavior of the various triglycerides. The reactor allowed motion pictures to be prepared of the injection event as the important reaction parameters, such as pressure, temperature, and atmosphere were varied. Furthermore, samples of the degradation products of precombusted triglycerides were collected and analyzed (gas chromatography / mass spectrometry).
Technical Paper

The Use of Hybrid Fuel in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1980-10-01
801380
Hybrids are fuels derived from combinations of different energy sources and which are generally formulated as solutions, emulsions, or slurries. The underlying objective of this program is to reduce the use of petroleum-derived fuels and/or to minimize the processing requirements of the finished hybrid fuels. Several hybrid fuel formulations have been developed and tested in a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The formulations included solutions of ethanol and vegetable oils in diesel fuel, emulsions of methanol and of ethanol in diesel fuel; and slurries of starch, cellulose, and “carbon” in diesel fuel. Based on the progress to date, the solutions and emulsions appear to be viable diesel engine fuels if the economic factors are favorable and the storage and handling problems are not too severe. The slurries, on the other hand, are not to the same point of development as the solutions and emulsions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties and Composition on Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions - A Review

1981-09-01
810953
Due to the cost and mobility advantages of diesel-powered mine vehicles over electric vehicles, it is anticipated that the diesel engine will become more widely used in underground mines in this country. Concern has arisen, however, over the impact of diesel exhaust emissions on the air quality in the underground mine environment. A literature search has been conducted to identify known effects of fuel properties on the reduction of diesel exhaust emissions. Reductions can be obtained by optimizing fuel properties and by considering alternative fuels to standard diesel fuel. However, the data base is relatively small and the results highly dependent on engine type and operating conditions. Engine studies on a typical mine diesel are necessary to draw quantitative conclusions regarding the reduction of emissions, especially particulates and NO2 which have not been generally addressed in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Effects of PuriNOx™ Water-Diesel Fuel Emulsions on Emissions and Fuel Economy in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2891
The engine-out emissions and fuel consumption rates for a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine were compared when fueling with a conventional diesel fuel and three water-blend-fuel emulsions. Four different fuels were studied: (1) a conventional diesel fuel, (2) PuriNOx,™ a water-fuel emulsion using the same conventional diesel fuel, but having 20% water by mass, and (3,4) two other formulations of the PuriNOx™ fuel that contained proprietary chemical additives intended to improve combustion efficiency and emissions characteristics. The emissions data were acquired with three different injection-timing strategies using the AVL 8-Mode steady-state test method in a Caterpillar 3176 engine, which had a calibration that met the 1998 nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions standard.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Partial Pre-Mixed Combustion with Cooled and Uncooled EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0963
An experimental investigation of the effects of partial premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and EGR temperature was conducted on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE). The addition of EGR and PCCI combustion resulted in significant NOx reductions over the AVL 8-mode test. The lowest weighted BSNOx achieved was 2.55 g/kW-hr (1.90 g/hp-hr) using cooled EGR and 20% port fuel injection (PFI). This represents a 54% reduction compared to the stock engine. BSHC and BSCO emissions increased by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively, compared to the stock engine. BSFC also increased by 7.7%. In general, BSHC, BSCO, BSPM, and BSFC increased linearly with the amount of port-injected fuel.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program - Test Fuel Development

2000-06-19
2000-01-1857
In 1995, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed the Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG). The objective of the group was to assess the role diesel fuel could play in meeting exhaust emission standards proposed for model year 2004+ heavy-duty diesel engines. The group developed a three-phase program to achieve this objective. This paper describes the development of test fuels used in Phase 2 of the EPA HDEWG Program to investigate the effect of fuel properties on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. It discusses the design of the fuel matrix, reviews the process of test fuel preparation and presents the results of a multi-laboratory fuel analysis program. Fuel properties selected for investigation included density, cetane number, mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content.
Technical Paper

Cetane Effect on Diesel Ignition Delay Times Measured in a Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus

1995-10-01
952352
The key feature of diesel fuel ignition quality is ignition delay time. In the American Society for Testing and Materials standard test for cetane number measurement, (ASTM D 613) the ignition delay time is held constant while the compression ratio is varied until ignition occurs at the set time. On the other hand, commercial diesel engines have set compression ratios and therefore, the ignition delay time varies with the cetane number of the fuel. The shorter this delay time, the wider the time window over which the combustion processes are spread. This leads to a more controlled heat release rate and pressure rise, resulting in prevention of diesel knock and in lowering of emissions. High cetane fuels exhibit short ignition delay times. The Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA) precisely measures the ignition delay time of fuels. This study investigates the CVCA as a supplementary tool for characterization of diesel fuel ignition quality under a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in a Variable Compression Ratio, Direct-Injection Engine

1987-02-01
870585
A single-cylinder, variable-compression ratio, direct-injection diesel engine was designed and constructed to study the ignition quality of seventeen different test fuels, ranging from the primary reference fuels to a vegetable oil. The objective of the work was to compare the ignition quality rating of the fuels using the standard cetane rating technique to ratings obtained in the test engine. The ignition delay times have been measured as functions of the engine speed, load, and compression ratio. As in the standard cetane rating technique, injection timing was adjusted so that combustion started at top dead center. This was accomplished by adjusting the injection timing as the speed, load, and compression ratio were varied. The resulting data is plotted as the ignition delay times versus compression ratio at the various speed-load conditions.
Technical Paper

The Mechanisms Leading to Increased Cylinder Bore and Ring Wear in Methanol-Fueled S. I. Engines

1981-10-01
811200
It is now a fairly well established fact that excessive ring and cylinder bore wear can result from the operation of an S. I. engine on neat methanol. The mechanism leading to the excessive wear were investigated using both engine and bench tests. Engine tests using prevaporized superheated methanol indicated that the wear results from reactions between the combustion products and the cast iron cylinder liner, where the presence of liquid methanol in the combustion chamber appears to be an important part of the mechanism. These reactions were investigated using a spinning disc combustor. The spinning disc combustor was used to provide a source of burning methanol droplets which were subsequently quenched on a water-cooled cast iron surface. The condensate formed on the cast iron surface was collected and analyzed for chemical composition. Infrared analysis indicated the presence of large quantities of iron formate, a reaction product of iron and formic acid.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

1985-10-01
852104
Combustion studies on various potential alternative fuels were performed for the U.S. Array Belvoir Research and Development Center in a two-stroke heavy duty diesel engine. One cylinder of the engine was instrumented with a pressure transducer. A high-speed data acquisition system was used to acquire cylinder pressure histories synchronously with crankangle. The heat release diagrams, along with the calculated combustion efficiencies of the fuels were compared to a referee grade diesel fuel. The calculated and measured combustion parameters include heat release centroids, cumulative heat release, peak pressure, indicated horsepower, peak rate of pressure rise, indicated thermal efficiency, energy input, and ignition delay. Regression analyses were performed between various fuel properties and the calculated and measured combustion performance parameters. The fuel properties included specific gravity, cetane number, viscosity, boiling point distribution.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Physical and Chemical Ignition Delay to Cetane Number

1985-10-01
852103
As a part of an overall project to improve the techniques for rating the ignition quality of diesel engine fuels, the experiments described in this paper involve examination of the relationship between cetane number and both the physical and chemical ignition delay times. The ignition delay times have been determined from accurate pressure histories obtained during the injection and ignition of a variety of test fuels in a constant volume combustion bomb using a quiescent, high-temperature, high-pressure air environment. The test fuels have included blends of the primary reference fuels as well as other fuels selected because of specific physical properties or chemical composition. The correlation between the cetane numbers of the fuels and various ignition delay times are examined.
Technical Paper

Acquisition and Interpretation of Diesel Engine Heat Release Data

1985-10-01
852068
The technique of using cylinder pressure data for diagnosing the combustion process in a reciprocating internal combustion engine has been used for some time. Much of the early work, however, was qualitative comparisons of the heat release rate diagrams. Only recently have efforts been made to reduce the heat release diagrams to functional or numerical representations which could be used to make fuel-to-fuel and engine-to-engine comparisons. This paper describes work in which cylinder pressure measurements were taken from an operating diesel engine using a high-speed data acquisition system. Combustion chamber pressure measurements were made at approximately 1.0- degree increments over several engine cycles using a real-time data acquisition system. The pressure data were used to calculate apparent heat release and indicated horsepower. Both radiative and convective heat transfer computations were included in the calculational procedures.
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