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Technical Paper

Powertrain Level Target Setting for Impulsive Noise based on Interior Noise Levels

2015-06-15
2015-01-2295
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level NVH targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle's NVH behavior will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Realization of vehicle level NVH targets relies on a combination of competitive powertrain (source) and vehicle (path) NVH performance. Assessment of vehicle NVH sensitivity is well understood, and can be accomplished through determination of customer interface NVH response to measured excitations at the source input locations. However, development of appropriate powertrain source targets can be more difficult, particularly related to sound quality. This paper discusses various approaches for definition of powertrain targets for sound quality, with a specific focus on impulsive noise.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2362
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1889
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Automotive Environmental Noise on Mobile Phone Hands-Free Call Quality

2019-06-05
2019-01-1597
Environmental noises such as wind, road, powertrain, and HVAC noise are important aspects to consider when implementing a hands-free terminal for mobile phone calling from within a car. Traditionally, these environmental noises have been exclusively considered for driver comfort; however, with the introduction of the hands-free terminals (HFT) and increasing consumer demand relative to mobile phone call quality, a broader implication of high background noise levels should be considered. HFT algorithm development and implementation can and does provide a high level of background noise suppression to mitigate these concerns, but this is often done at the expense of computational power and cumulative delay during a phone call. The more advantageous solution would be to address the problem from a source and path perspective with emphasis on reduction of noise in the frequency bands which most influence call quality performance.
Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1454
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs). The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.
Technical Paper

NVH Target Cascading from Customer Interface to Vehicle Subsystems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1980
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Though development of sound quality metrics is ongoing to better correlate objective data with subjective assessments, target setting at the vehicle level is relatively straightforward. However, realization of these targets depends on effective cascading to system and component levels. Often, component level targets are derived based on experience from earlier development programs, or based on selected characteristics observed during component level benchmarking. An approach is presented here to complement current strategies for component level target definition. This approach involves a systematic concept for definition of component NVH targets based on desired vehicle level performance and a consequent target break down.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Installation for Diesel Engine Sound Quality Development in a Light Duty Vehicle Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-0024
Increased customer expectation for NVH refinement creates a significant challenge for the integration of Diesel powertrains into passenger vehicles that might have been initially developed for gasoline engine applications. A significant factor in the refinement of Diesel powertrain sound quality is calibration optimization for NVH, which is often constrained by performance, emissions and fuel economy requirements. Vehicle level enablers add cost and weight to the vehicle and are generally bounded by vehicle architecture, particularly when dealing with a carry-over vehicle platform, as is often the case for many vehicle programs. These constraints are compounded by the need to make program critical sound package content decisions well before the availability of prototype vehicles with the right powertrain. In this paper, a case study on NVH development for integration of a light duty Diesel powertrain is presented.
Technical Paper

Application of Combustion Sound Level (CSL) Analysis for Powertrain

2009-05-19
2009-01-2168
Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1814
The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Source and Path Contributions to Sound Quality Using Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1685
It is commonly accepted that refined “powertrain sound quality” is essential to the development of a vehicle which will be well received by today's discriminating automotive customer. However, though there are several metrics which correlate well with a subjective impression of powertrain level inputs, what is ultimately important is the sound quality at driver's ear. Vehicle level powertrain sound quality is influenced by the powertrain noise and vibration (source) as well as the vehicle airborne and structureborne transfer functions (path). In development as well as benchmarking activities, it can be difficult to separate the influence of source and path on overall vehicle sound quality.
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