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Technical Paper

Optical Investigations of the Vaporization Behaviors of Isooctane and an Optical, Non-fluorescing Multicomponent Fuel in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine

Investigations of the fuel injection processes in a spark ignition direct injection engine have been performed for two different fuels. The goal of this research was to determine the differences between isooctane, which is often used as an alternative to gasoline for optical engine investigations, and a special, non-fluorescing, full boiling range multicomponent fuel. The apparent vaporization characteristics of isooctane and the multicomponent fuel were examined in homogeneous operating mode with direct injection during the intake stroke. To this end, simultaneous Mie scattering and planar laser induced fluorescence imaging experiments were performed in a transparent research engine. Both fuels were mixed with 3-Pentanone as a fluorescence tracer. A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser was used as both the fluorescent excitation source and the light scattering source.
Technical Paper

Use of Ceramic Components in Sliding Systems for High-Pressure Gasoline Fuel Injection Pumps

Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Nozzle Hole Diameter on Highly Premixed and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion and Full Load Behavior

Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies on the Occurrence of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged GDI Engines

In the present paper the results of a set of experimental investigations on LSPI are discussed. The ignition system of a test engine was modified to enable random spark advance in one of the four cylinders. LSPI sequences were successfully triggered and exhibited similar characteristics compared to regularly occurring pre-ignition. Optical investigations applying a high speed camera system enabling a visualization of the combustion process were performed. In a second engine the influence of the physical properties of the considered lubricant on the LSPI frequency was analyzed. In addition different piston ring assemblies have been tested. Moreover an online acquisition of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhaust gas was performed. The combination of these experimental techniques in the present study provided further insights on the development of LSPI sequences.
Technical Paper

Application of Particle Image Velocimetry for Investigation of Spray Characteristics of an Outward Opening Nozzle for Gasoline Direct Injection

The hollow cone spray from a high pressure outward opening nozzle was investigated inside a pressure vessel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow velocities of the air outside the spray were measured via PIV in combination with fluorescent seeding particles and optical filters. The high pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle to provide a hollow cone spray with an angle of about 90°. During injection a very strong and stable vortex structure is induced by the fuel spray. Besides the general spray/air interaction, the investigation of double and triple fuel injections was the main focus of this study.
Technical Paper

A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines

Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Knocking Investigations in a small Two-Stroke SI Engine

The trend of higher specific power and increased volumetric efficiency leads to unwanted combustion phenomenon such as knocking, pre-ignition and self-ignition. For four-stroke engines, the literature reports that knocking depends, to a large extent, on the ignition angle, the degree of enrichment and the volumetric efficiency. In recent research, knock investigations in two-stroke engines have only been carried out to a limited extent. This paper discusses an investigation of the influence of various parameters on the knock characteristics of a small, high-speed, two-stroke SI engine. In particular, the degree of enrichment, the volumetric efficiency and the ignition timing serve as the parameters.
Technical Paper

Application of Multifiber Optics in Handheld Power Tools with High Speed Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

When developing effective exhaust emission reduction measures, a better understanding of the complex working cycle in crankcase scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines. However, in a two-stroke gasoline engine detailed measurement and analysis of combustion data requires significantly more effort, when compared to a lower speed four-stroke engine. Particularly demanding are the requirements regarding the high speed (>10,000 rpm) which inevitably goes along with heavy vibrations and high temperatures of the air cooled cylinders. Another major challenge to the measuring equipment is the increased cleaning demand of the optical sensor surface due to the two-stroke gasoline mixture. In addition, the measuring equipment has to be adapted to the small size engines. Therefore, only a fiber optical approach can deliver insight into the cylinder for analyzing the combustion performance.
Journal Article

Investigations on the Effects of the Ignition Spark with Controlled Autoignition (CAI)

Controlled Autoignition (CAI) is a very promising technology for simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and engine-out emissions [3, 4, 9, 16]. But the operating range of this combustion mode is limited on the one hand by high pressure gradients with the subsequent occurrence of knocking, increasing NOX-emissions and cyclic variations, and on the other hand by limited operating stability due to low mixture temperatures. At higher loads the required amount of internal EGR decrease to reach self-ignition conditions decrease and hence the influence of the ignition spark gain. The timing of the ignition spark highly influence the combustion process at higher loads. With the ignition spark, pre-reactions are initialized with a defined heat release. Thus the location of inflammation and flame propagation can be strongly influenced and cyclic variations at higher loads can be reduced.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Fuel Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection based on Ceramic Components

Modern direct injection spark ignition engines (DISI-engines) require increasing fuel-injection-pressures in order to accelerate mixture preparation. Therein the fuel-pump is an essential component. Non-conventional materials offer a high potential to realize high pressure combined with low wear and friction. An exemplary high pressure fuel pump was developed in order to evaluate the use of different combinations of ceramic materials and steel as sliding parts. Forces and friction coefficients can be retrieved as a function of the crank angle in the sliding contacts. The leakage in the gap between cylinder and piston was analyzed and an analytical model was developed. Important effects of clearance, stroke frequency and surface roughness on forces and friction coefficients are presented for different combinations of materials and fuels.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Various Compression Ratios, Intake Air Temperatures and Fuels with Port and Direct Fuel Injection

A promising approach for reducing both NOx- and particulate matter emissions with low fuel consumption is the so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Single-cylinder engine tests were carried out to assess the influence of several parameters on the HCCI combustion. The experiments were performed both with port fuel injection (PFI) and with direct injection (DI) under various compression ratios, intake air temperatures and EGR-rates. Special emphasis was put on the fuel composition by using different gasoline and diesel fuels as well as n-heptane. Besides engine out emissions (CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC, soot) and in-cylinder pressure indication for burning process analysis, the combustion itself was visualised using an optical probe.
Journal Article

High Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection in Spark Ignition Engines - Efficiency Optimization through Detailed Process Analyses

At part load and wide open throttle operation with stratified charge and lean mixture conditions the Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine offers similar efficiency levels compared to compression ignition engines The present paper reports on results of recent studies on the impact of the in-cylinder processes in DISI engines e. g. the injection, the in-cylinder flow, the mixture preparation and the ignition on the combustion, the energy conversion and the exhaust emission behavior. The analyses of the spray behavior, of the in-cylinder flow during compression as well as of the flame propagation have been carried out applying advanced optical measurement techniques. The results enable a targeted optimization of the combustion process with respect to engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. The benefits of an increase in fuel injection pressures up to 100 MPa are discussed.
Technical Paper

Optical Fiber Technique as a Tool to Improve Combustion Efficiency

A multi-optical fiber technique is presented, which enables one to detect the flame propagation during non-knocking and knocking conditions in real production engines. The measurement technique is appropriate to detect knock onset locations and to describe the propagation of knocking reaction fronts. With this knowledge, the combustion chamber shape can be optimized, leading to a better knock resistance and higher combustion efficiencies. Results of flame propagation under non-knocking and knocking engine operating conditions are presented. In addition, correlations between knock onset locations and areas in which knock damage occurs are shown for different engines. Presented are the effects of combustion chamber modifications on the combustion efficiency, based on the analysis of the optical fiber measurements.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations of a DISI Engine in Transient Operation with Regard to Particle and Gaseous Engine-out Emissions

The investigation of transient engine operation plays a key role of the future challenges for individual mobility in terms of real driving emissions (RDE). A fundamental investigation of the transient engine operation requires the simultaneous application of measurement technologies for an integrated study of mixture formation, combustion process and emission formation. The major prerequisite is the combustion cycle and crank angle resolved analysis of the process for at least several individual consecutive combustion cycles during transient operation. The investigations are performed with a multi cylinder DISI engine at an Engine-in-the-Loop test bench, able to operate the engine in driving cycles as well as within target profiles (e.g. speed and torque profiles). The research project describes the methodology of analyzing elementary transient operational phases, (e.g. different variants of load steps).
Journal Article

Investigations on Pre-Ignition in Highly Supercharged SI Engines

This paper presents the results of a study on reasons for the occurrence of pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. During the study, the phenomena to be taken into account were foremost structured into a decision tree according to their physical working principles. Using this decision tree all conceivable single mechanisms to be considered as reasons for pre-ignition could be derived. In order to judge each of them with respect to their ability to promote pre-ignition in a test engine, experimental investigations as well as numerical simulations were carried out. The interdependence between engine operating conditions and pre-ignition frequency was examined experimentally by varying specific parameters. Additionally, optical measurements using an UV sensitive high-speed camera system were performed to obtain information about the spatial distribution of pre-ignition origins and their progress.
Journal Article

Premature Flame Initiation in a Turbocharged DISI Engine - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations on pre-ignition in a series-production turbocharged DISI engine. Previous studies led to the conclusion that pre-ignition can be triggered by auto-ignition of oil droplets generated in the combustion chamber. Analysis of more recent experiments shows that a modification of the engine operation parameters that promotes spray/lubricant interaction also increases pre-ignition frequency, while modifications that enhance the speed of chemical reactions (thereby favoring auto-ignition) have little or no influence. The experimental and numerical findings can be explained if we assume the existence of a substance (originating from lubricant/fuel interaction) that displays extremely short ignition delay times.
Journal Article

Is a High Pressure Direct Injection System a Solution to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Small Two-Stroke Engine?

Small gasoline engines are used in motorcycles and handheld machinery, because of their high power density, low cost and compact design. The reduction of hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption is an important factor regarding the upcoming emission standards and operational expenses. The scavenging process of the two-stroke engine causes scavenging losses. A reduction in hydrocarbon emissions due to scavenging losses can be achieved through inner mixture formation using direct injection (DI). The time frame for fuel vaporization is limited using two-stroke SI engines by the high number of revolutions. A high pressure DI system was used to offer fast and accurate injections. An injection pressure of up to 140 MPa was provided by a common rail system, built out of components normally used in automotive engineering. A standard electromagnetic injector is applied for the fuel injection. This injection unit is dimensioned for multi-point injections in diesel engines.