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Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Simulator Study of Heavy Truck Air Disc Brake Effectiveness During Emergency Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-1498
In crashes between heavy trucks and light vehicles, most of the fatalities are the occupants of the light vehicle. A reduction in heavy truck stopping distance should lead to a reduction in the number of crashes, the severity of crashes, and consequently the numbers of fatalities and injuries. This study made use of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). NADS is a full immersion driving simulator used to study driver behavior as well as driver-vehicle reactions and responses. The vehicle dynamics model of the existing heavy truck on NADS had been modified with the creation of two additional brake models. The first was a modified S-cam (larger drums and shoes) and the second was an air-actuated disc brake system. A sample of 108 CDL-licensed drivers was split evenly among the simulations using each of the three braking systems. The drivers were presented with four different emergency stopping situations.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electronic Pedestrian Detection Systems for School Buses

1996-12-01
960518
Most fatalities due to school bus accidents involve pedestrians being struck by the bus. All too frequently the school bus strikes a disembarking passenger because the driver was unaware of their presence near the bus. To try to prevent this type of accident, two Doppler microwave radar-based pedestrian detection systems have been developed and are commercially available. These systems supplement regular school bus mirrors. They operate only while the bus is stationary. Both systems detect moving pedestrians either directly in front of or to the right of the bus. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed a three-part evaluation of these pedestrian detection systems. The first part measured the field of view of each system's sensors. The second part evaluated the effectiveness and appropriateness of each system's driver interface. The third part was a small-scale operational evaluation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of J-Turn and Fishhook Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1008
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed in 2001, starting in the spring and continuing through the fall. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 1” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from one Characterization maneuver (the Slowly Increasing Steer maneuver) and four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are discussed (the NHTSA J-Turn, Fishhook 1a, Fishhook 1b, and Nissan Fishhook). Details regarding NHTSA's assessment of the Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are available in “Volume 2” [2].
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of Double Lane Change Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1009
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed during the spring through fall of 2001. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 2” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are presented. The Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are discussed. Details regarding the NHTSA J-Turn, and the three fishhook maneuvers are available in “Volume 1” [2].
Technical Paper

NHTSA DRIVER DISTRACTION RESEARCH: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

2001-06-04
2001-06-0177
Driver distraction has been identified as a high-priority topic by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, reflecting concerns about the compatibility of certain in-vehicle technologies with the driving task, whether drivers are making potentially dangerous decisions about when to interact with in-vehicle technologies while driving, and that these trends may accelerate as new technologies continue to become available. Since 1991, NHTSA has conducted research to understand the factors that contribute to driver distraction and to develop methods to assess the extent to which in-vehicle technologies may contribute to crashes. This paper summarizes significant findings from past NHTSA research in the area of driver distraction and workload, provides an overview of current ongoing research, and describes upcoming research that will be conducted, including research using the National Advanced Driving Simulator and work to be conducted at NHTSA’s Vehicle Research and Test Center.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Automobile Maneuvers Using Preview-Predictor Models

1982-02-01
820305
Two computer models of drivers using preview predictor strategies have been successfully implemented in conjunction with a recently developed, all digital vehicle simulation. The driver models determine control inputs to the vehicle simulation by first predicting future vehicle position and velocity and then determining the steering and braking commands necessary to move the vehicle from the predicted to the desired path. Full technical details of the method of implementation for each of the models are given. The results of sample simulations of the driver-vehicle system using each driver model are shown. Problems of each model are discussed.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Automobile Maneuvers Using Describing Function Models

1982-02-01
820306
Two computer models of drivers using describing function strategies have been successfully implemented in conjunction with a recently developed, all digital vehicle simulation. The driver models determine control inputs to the vehicle simulation by means of feedback loops. Two feedback loops, an outer one on lateral position and an inner one on heading angle are used to determine the steering commands needed to move the vehicle to the desired path. One feedback loop on forward velocity is used to determine braking and acceleration commands. Full technical details of the method of implementation for each of the models are given. The results of sample simulations of the driver-vehicle system are shown and the results discussed.
Technical Paper

Results from NHTSA's Experimental Examination of Selected Maneuvers that may Induce On-Road Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0131
This paper summarizes the results of test maneuvers devised to measure on-road, untripped, rollover propensity. Complete findings from this research are contained in [1]. Twelve test vehicles, representing a wide range of vehicle types and classes were used. Three vehicles from each of four categories: passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles, were tested. The vehicles were tested with vehicle characterization and untripped rollover propensity maneuvers. The vehicle characterization maneuvers were designed to determine fundamental vehicle handling properties while the untripped rollover propensity maneuvers were designed to produce two-wheel lift for vehicles with relatively higher rollover propensity potential. The vehicle characterization maneuvers were Pulse Steer, Sinusoidal Sweep, Slowly Increasing Steer, and Slowly Increasing Speed. The rollover propensity maneuvers were J-Turn, J-Turn with Pulse Braking, Fishhook #1 and #2, and Resonant Steer.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Light Vehicle Antilock Brake Systems Research Program

1999-03-01
1999-01-1286
This paper presents an overview of currently ongoing research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the area of light vehicle (passenger cars and light trucks) Antilock Brake Systems (ABS). This paper serves as a lead-in to other papers that will be presented during this session. Several statistical crash data studies have found there to be little or no net safety benefit from the implementation of four-wheel ABS on passenger automobiles. Typically, these studies have found ABS to be associated with: 1. A statistically significant decrease in multi-vehicle crashes. 2. A statistically significant decrease in fatal pedestrian strikes. 3. A statistically significant increase in single-vehicle road departure crashes. The safety disbenefit due to the third finding approximately cancels the safety benefits from the first two findings.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Light Vehicle Antilock Brake System Test Track Performance Evaluation

1999-03-01
1999-01-1287
To determine if situations and/or conditions exist in which ABS-equipped vehicles do not perform as well as those without ABS, the braking performance of nine passenger vehicles was observed over a comprehensive array of driving conditions. For most maneuvers, on most surfaces, ABS-assisted stops yielded distances shorter than those made with the ABS disabled. The one exception was on loose gravel where stopping distances increased by an average of 27.2 percent overall. Additionally, the vehicular stability observed during testing was almost always superior with ABS. For the cases in which instability was observed, ABS was not deemed responsible for its occurrence.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters-NHTSA’s Data Through November 1998

1999-03-01
1999-01-1336
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Database. This database contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from SAE Paper 930897, “Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA’s Data Through September 1992” (1), as well as parameters obtained by NHTSA since 1992. The proceeding paper contained 414 entries. This paper contains 82 new entries, for a total of 496. The majority of the entries contain complete vehicle inertial parameters, some of the entries contain tilt table results only, and some entries contain both inertia and tilt table results. This paper provides a brief discussion of the accuracy of inertial measurements. Also included are selected graphs of quantities listed in the database for some of the 1998 model year vehicles tested.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Tire Lag on Simulated Transient Vehicle Response

1991-02-01
910235
This paper discusses the importance of having an adequate model for the dynamic response characteristics of tire lateral force to steering inputs. Computer simulation and comparison with experimental results are used to show the importance of including appropriate tire dynamics in simulation tire models to produce accurate predictions of vehicle dynamics. Improvements made to the tire dynamics model of an existing vehicle stability and control simulation, the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) simulation, are presented. Specifically, the improvements include changing the simulation's tire dynamics from first-order system tire side force lag dynamics to second-order system tire slip angle dynamics. A second-order system representation is necessary to model underdamped characteristics of tires at high speeds. Lagging slip angle (an input to the tire model) causes all slip angle dependent tire force and moment outputs to be lagged.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA's Data Through September 1992

1993-03-01
930897
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Data Base. This data base contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from all of the 356 tests performed to date with NHTSA's Inertial Parameter Measurement Device (IPMD) that have resulted in data thought to be of general interest. Additionally, the data base contains tilt table data from all 168 vehicle tests performed to date using NHTSA's Tilt Table. The paper also summarizes the history of modifications to the IPMD and discusses how these modifications have improved the accuracy of IPMD measurements.
Technical Paper

Suspension Testing Using the Suspension Parameter Measurement Device

1987-02-01
870577
This paper describes the process of testing a suspension on the Suspension Parameter Measurement Device (SPMD). It begins by discussing the process of preparing to test a suspension on the SPMD. This includes discussions of preparing a suspension identification data file, mounting the suspension to be tested on a buck, and the calibration of the SPMD's transducers. The next sections of the paper cover the actual testing performed on a suspension while it is mounted on the SPMD. The different types of suspension tests performed are described and the rationale for each type of test is discussed. The flowchart for a typical individual test is presented and explained. The matrix of individual tests performed for each suspension tested is discussed. Estimates of the time and manpower required to perform the testing are given. The paper next looks at the data measured by the SPMD. The first level of analysis performed on the data is explained.
Technical Paper

An Ergonomic Evaluation of School Bus Cross View Mirror Systems

1992-02-01
920401
This research studied the problems and effectiveness of existing cross view school bus mirror systems. Interviews were conducted with 49 school bus drivers to ascertain their evaluations of the use and perceived effectiveness of various cross view mirror systems. Six commercially available cross view mirrors were randomly selected for testing. These mirrors were used to make the seven cross view mirror systems (each with 2 to 4 cross view mirrors) which were evaluated. The optical properties of each cross view mirror and the field of view (FOV) of each mirror system were measured in a laboratory environment. Mirror system FOVs were determined with the mirrors mounted on each of three different types of school buses. The directly observable FOV of each bus was also determined. Driver child detection field studies were conducted using eight bus drivers and six mirror systems with simulated children.
Technical Paper

The Variation of Static Rollover Metrics With Vehicle Loading and Between Similar Vehicles

1992-02-01
920583
This paper examines variability of two static rollover metrics, Static Stability Factor (SSF) and Tilt Table Ratio (TTR), due to vehicle loading and vehicle-to-vehicle variation. Variability due to loading was determined by measuring SSF and TTR for 14 vehicles/configurations at multiple loadings. Up to five loadings were used per vehicle/configuration tested. Vehicle-to-vehicle variability was studied by measuring SSF and TTR for ten unmodified vehicles of each of four make/models. Five baseline vehicles, as similar as was feasible, were tested. The other five test vehicles spanned the range of submodels and options available. In general, both SSF and TTR decreased as occupants were added to a vehicle. The change in SSF and TTR per occupant was fairly consistent, with changes in TTR being more consistent. Placing ballast on the floor of the cargo compartment had a mixed effect on SSF, raising it for some vehicles and lowering it for others.
Technical Paper

An Investigation, Via Simulation, of Vehicle Characteristics that Contribute to Steering Maneuver Induced Rollover

1992-02-01
920585
The goal of this research was to find vehicle characteristics which may contribute to steering maneuver induced rollover accidents. This work involved studying vehicle handling dynamics using the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) computer simulation. The simulation was used to predict vehicle responses while performing 28 different steering induced maneuvers for each of 51 vehicles. Various measures of vehicle response (metrics), such as response times, percent overshoots, etc., were computed for each vehicle from simulation predictions. These vehicle directional response metrics were analyzed in an attempt to identify vehicle characteristics that might be good predictor/explanatory variables for vehicle rollover propensity. The metrics were correlated, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software and logistic regression, with single vehicle accident data from the state of Michigan for the years 1986 through 1988.
Technical Paper

Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES): A Data Archiving Tool for Engineers and Scientists

1997-02-24
970453
As Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) become more prevalent, the need to archive data from field tests becomes more critical. These data can guide the design of future systems, provide an information conduit among the many developers of ITS, enable comparisons across locations and time, and support development of theoretical models of driver behavior. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is interested in such an archive. While a design for an ITS data archive has not yet been developed, NHTSA has supported the enhancement of the Test Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation System (Test PAES), originally developed by Calspan SRL Corporation for the U. S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, for possible use in such an archive. On a single screen, Test PAES enables engineering unit data, audio, and video, as well as a vehicle animation, to be time synchronized, displayed simultaneously, and operated with a single control.
Technical Paper

A Reliability Theory Approach to Estimate the Potential Effectiveness of a Crash Avoidance System to Support Lane Change Decisions

1997-02-24
970454
This paper presents the methodology and initial results of an effectiveness estimation effort applied to lane change crash avoidance systems. The lane change maneuver was considered to be composed of a decision phase and an execution phase. The decision phase begins when the driver desires to perform a lane change. It continues until the driver turns the handwheel to move the vehicle laterally into the new lane or until the driver decides to postpone the lane change. During the decision phase, the driver gathers information about the road scene ahead and either present or upcoming traffic or obstacles in the destination lane. The execution phase begins when the driver starts the move into the new lane and continues until the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the destination lane. If the driver aborts the lane change once started, the maneuver execution phase concludes when the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the original lane.
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