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Journal Article

Understanding Knock Metric for Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

The knock metric for controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines is assessed by considering the physical processes that establish the pressure wave that contributes to the acoustic radiation of the engine, and by analyzing pressure data from a CAI engine. Data sets from the engine operating with port fuel injection, early direct injection and late direct injection are used to monitor the effect of mixture composition stratification. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the local pressure rise produced by heat release has to be discounted by the work spent in acoustic expansion against the ambient pressure to properly predict the pressure wave amplitude. Based on this analysis, a modified correlation between the pressure wave amplitude and the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) is developed by introducing an MPRR offset to account for the expansion work.
Technical Paper

The Nature of Heat Release in Gasoline PPCI Engines

The heat release characteristics in terms of the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and combustion phasing in a partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engine are studied using a calibration gasoline. Early port fuel injection provides a nearly homogeneous charge, into which a secondary fuel pulse is added via direct injection (DI) to provide stratification which is affected by the timing of the start of injection (SOI). As the SOI the DI fuel is retarded from early compression, MPRR first decreases, then increases substantially, and decreases again. The MPRR correlates mostly with the combustion phasing. The SOI timing plays an indirect role. The observation is explained by a bulk heat release process of which the rate increases with temperature rather than by a sequential ignition process. Observations from compression ignition of representative homogeneous charges in a Rapid Compression Machine support this explanation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Strategy on HC Emissions in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine During Fast Idle

The interaction of intake port gas flow with the fuel spray in a port-fuel-injection engine is studied to see whether there are opportunities to facilitate the mixture preparation process and to improve the HC emissions through this interaction. The operating regime of interest is the fast idle period in a cold start. For single pulse injection, the HC emissions were not sensitive to injection details for closed-valve injection; emissions increased with open-valve injection. Then a split injection strategy was used in which the fuel was divided into two pulses. The first pulse was delivered during valve-closed; the second pulse was injected in the back flow period. Under cold-valve conditions, a small benefit (compared to close valve injection) was obtained with a second pulse fuel of 25%: 6% decrease in Specific HC emissions and 4.5% increase in the fuel delivery fraction.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in the First Cycle of SI Engine Cranking

The mixture preparation and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors for a single-cylinder port-fuel-injection SI engine were examined in an engine/dynamometer set up that simulated the first cycle of cranking. The engine was motored continuously at a fixed low speed with the ignition on, and fuel was injected every 8 cycles. Unlike the real engine cranking process, the set up provided a well controlled and repeatable environment to study the cranking process. The parameters were the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT), speed, and the fuel injection pulse width. The in-cylinder and exhaust HC were measured simultaneously with two Fast-response Flame Ionization Detectors. A large amount of injected fuel (an order of magnitude larger than the normal amount that would produce a stoichiometric mixture in a warm-up engine) was required to form a combustible mixture at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Diesel Sprays

The heat transfer characteristics of impinging diesel sprays were studied in a Rapid Compression Machine. The temporal and spatial distributions of the heat transfer around the impingement point -were measured by an array of high frequency response surface thermocouples. Simultaneously, the flow field of the combusting spray was photographed with high speed movie through the transparent head of the apparatus. The results for the auto-ignited fuel sprays were compared to those of non-combusting sprays which were carried out in nitrogen. The values of the heat flux from the combusting sprays were found to be substantially different from those of the non-combusting sprays. The difference was attribute to the radiative heat transfer and the combustion generated bulk, motion and small scale turbulence.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark-Ignition Engine at Part Load

The flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially at part load. The backflow of the hot burned gas from the cylinder into the intake port when the intake valve is opened breaks up any liquid film around the inlet valve, influences gas and wall temperatures, and has a major effect on the fuel vaporization process. The backflow of in-cylinder mixture with its residual component during the compression stroke prior to inlet valve closing fills part of the port with gas at higher than fresh mixture temperature. To quantify these phenomena, time-resolved measurements of the hydrocarbon concentration profile along the center-line of the intake port were made with a fast-response flame ionization detector, and of the gas temperature with a fine wire resistance thermometer, in a single-cylinder engine running with premixed propane/air mixture.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.