Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel and its Blends on Particulate Emissions from HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0798
The effect of biodiesel on the Particulate emissions is gaining significant attention particularly with the drive for the use of alternative fuels. The particulate matter (PM), especially having a diameter less than 50 nm called the Nanoparticles or Nucleation mode particles (NMPs), has been raising concerns about its effect on human health. To better understand the effect of biodiesel and its blends on particulate emissions, steady state tests were conducted on a small-bore single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection research diesel engine. The engine was fueled with Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD or B-00), a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% ULSD on volumetric basis (B-20), B-40, B-60, B-80 and 100% soy-derived biodiesel (B-100), equipped with a common rail injection system, EGR and swirl control systems at a load of 5 bar IMEP and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Biodiesel Blends on Autoignition, Combustion, Performance and Engine-Out Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0489
The effects of different blends of Soybean Methyl Ester (biodiesel) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel: B-00 (ULSD), B-20, B-40, B-60, B-80 and B-100 (biodiesel); on autoignition, combustion, performance, and engine out emissions of different species including particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm under simulated turbocharged conditions at 5 bar IMEP load with varied injection pressures at a medium swirl of 3.77 w ithout EGR. Analysis of test results was done to determine the role of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend on the basic thermodynamic and combustion processes under fuel injection pressures ranging from 600 bar to 1200 bar.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of JP-8 and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1123
JP-8 is an aviation turbine engine fuel recently introduced for use in military ground vehicle applications and generators which are mostly powered by diesel engines. Many of these engines are designed and developed for commercial use and need to be adapted for military applications. This requires more understanding of the auto- ignition and combustion characteristics of JP-8 under different engine operating conditions. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of an engine operation using JP-8 and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). Experiments were conducted on 0.42 liter single cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The results indicate that the distillation properties of fuel have an effect on its vaporization rate. JP-8 evaporated faster and had shorter ignition delay as compared to ULSD. The fuel economy with JP-8 was better than ULSD.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0652
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Journal Article

Effect of Swirl Ratio and Wall Temperature on Pre-lnjection Chemiluminescence During Starting of an Optical Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2712
Fuel wall impingement commonly occurs in small-bore diesel engines. Particularly during engine starting, when wall temperatures are low, the evaporation rate of fuel film remaining from previous cycles plays a significant role in the autoignition process that is not fully understood. Pre-injection chemiluminescence (PIC), resulting from low-temperature oxidation of evaporating fuel film and residual gases, was measured over 3200 μsec intervals at the end of the compression strokes, but prior to fuel injection during a series of starting sequences in an optical diesel engine. These experiments were conducted to determine the effect of this parameter on combustion phasing and were conducted at initial engine temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60°C, at swirl ratios of 2.0 and 4.5 at 1000 RPM. PIC was determined to increase and be highly correlated with combustion phasing during initial cycles of the starting sequence.
Technical Paper

Optical and Numerical Investigation of Pre-Injection Reactions and Their Effect on the Starting of a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0648
Ultraviolet chemiluminescence has been observed in a diesel engine cyclinder during compression, but prior to fuel injection under engine starting conditions. During a portion of the warm-up sequence, the intensity of this emission exhibits a strong correlation to the phasing of the subsequent combustion. Engine exhaust measurements taken from a continuously misfiring, motored engine confirm the generation of formaldehyde (HCHO) in such processes. Fractions of this compound are expected to be recycled as residual to participate in the following combustion cycle. Spectral measurements taken during the compression period prior to fuel injection match the features of Emeleus' cool flame HCHO bands that have been observed during low temperature heat release reactions occurring in lean HCCI combustion. That the signal from the OH* bands is weak implies a buildup of HCHO during compression.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1203
The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Pressure and Temperature on the Auto-Ignition of Fuels with Different Cetane Number and Volatility

2012-04-16
2012-01-1317
This paper investigates the effect of boost pressure and intake temperature on the auto-ignition of fuels with a wide range of properties. The fuels used in this investigation are ULSD (CN 45), FT-SPK (CN 61) and two blends of JP-8 (with CN 25 and 49). Detailed analysis of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces are made to correlate the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the events immediately following start of injection leading to combustion. A CFD model is applied to track the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the formation of different chemical species and study their role and contribution in the auto-ignition reactions. Results from a previous investigation on the effect of intake temperature on auto-ignition of these fuels are compared with the results of this investigation.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control Using Ion Current Signal in a Diesel Engine

2012-04-01
2011-01-2433
Signals indicative of in-cylinder combustion have been under investigation for the control of diesel engines to meet stringent emission standards and other production targets in performance and fuel economy. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the use of the ion current signal for the close loop control of a heavy duty four cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. A correlation is developed between the start of ion current signal (SIC) and the location of the peak of premixed combustion (LPPC) in the rate of heat release trace. Based on this correlation, a PID closed loop controller is developed to adjust the injection timing for proper combustion phasing under steady and transient engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the EGR Cooler

2008-04-14
2008-01-0956
EGR is a proven technology used to reduce NOx formation in both compression and spark ignition engines by reducing the combustion temperature. In order to further increase its efficiency the recirculated gases are subjected to cooling. However, this leads to a higher load on the cooling system of the engine, thus requiring a larger radiator. In the case of turbocharged engines the large variations of the pressures, especially in the exhaust manifold, produce a highly pulsating EGR flow leading to non-steady-state heat transfer in the cooler. The current research presents a method of determining the pulsating flow field and the instantaneous heat transfer in the EGR heat exchanger. The processes are simulated using the CFD code FIRE (AVL) and the results are subjected to validation by comparison with the experimental data obtained on a 2.5 liter, four cylinder, common rail and turbocharged diesel engine.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

2008-04-14
2008-01-1086
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1071
This paper presents an experimental investigation conducted to determine the parameters that control the behavior of autoignition in a small-bore, single-cylinder, optically-accessible diesel engine. Depending on operating conditions, three types of autoignition are observed: a single ignition, a two-stage process where a low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame precedes the main premixed combustion, and a two-stage process where the LTHR or cool flame is separated from the main heat release by an apparent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Experiments were conducted using commercial grade low-sulfur diesel fuel with a common-rail injection system. An intensified CCD camera was used for ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of chemiluminescent autoignition reactions under various operating conditions including fuel injection pressures, engine temperatures and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel (B-20) on Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1401
The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

2007-04-16
2007-01-0905
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Lower Temperature Limits for Cold Starting of Diesel Engine with a Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0934
One of the most challenging problems in diesel engines is to reduce unburned HC emissions that appear as (white smoke) during cold starting. In this paper the research is carried out on a 4-cylinder diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system, which is able to deliver multiple injections during cold start. The causes of combustion failure at lower temperature limits are investigated theoretically by considering the rate of heat release. The results of this clearly indicate that in addition to low cranking engine speed, heat transfer and blow-by losses at lower ambient temperatures, fuel injection events would contribute to the failure of combustion. Also, combustion failure takes place when the compression temperature is lower than some critical value. Based on these results, split-main injection strategy was applied during engine cold starting and validated by experiments in a cold room at lower ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Cold-Start Control Strategy for a Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel System at Different Ambient Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-0933
A new tool has been used to arrive at appropriate split injection strategy for reducing the cranking period during the cold start of a multi-cylinder engine at decreasing ambient temperatures. The concept behind this tool is that the combination of different injection parameters that produce the highest IMEP should be able to improve the cold startability of the diesel engine. In this work the following injection parameters were considered: 1) injection timing, 2) split injection fraction, 3) dwell time and 4) total fuel mass injected per cycle. A commercial engine cyclic simulation code has been modified for diesel engine cycle simulation at lower ambient temperatures. The code was used to develop IMEP control maps. The maps were used to identify the parameters that would give the best IMEP. The strategies that have been identified have been validated experimentally in a multi-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings for High Output Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1442
Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are perceived as enabling technology to increase low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine performance and improve its longevity. The state of the art of thermal barrier coating is the plasma spray zirconia. In addition, other material systems have been investigated for the next generation of thermal barrier coatings. The purpose of this TBC program is to focus on developing binder systems with low thermal conductivity materials to improve the coating durability under high load and temperature cyclical conditions encountered in the real engine. Research and development (R&D) and analysis were conducted on aluminum alloy piston for high output turbocharged diesel engine coated with TBC.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Bore Coating for Extreme Operating Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1439
Abstract Adiabatics, Inc., with the support of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research & Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) has developed a low cost, durable ceramic composite cylinder bore coating for diesel engines operating under severe conditions. This bore coating is a ceramic composite consisting primarily of Iron Oxide, Iron Titanate and Partially Stabilized Zirconia. It is applied by unique chemical thermal bonding technology developed at Adiabatics, Inc. and is referred to as Low Temperature Iron Titanate (LTIT). This coating has been tested against a wide range of cylinder bore treatments ranging from hard chrome plate to hard Nickel Silicon Carbide (NikaSil) and found to provide a superior sliding wear surface. It is superior because it is compatible against most common piston ring materials and coatings.
X