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Technical Paper

High Pressure Fuel Injection for High Power Density Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1186
High-pressure fuel injection combustion is being applied as an approach to increase the power density of diesel engines. The high-pressure injection enables higher air utilization and thus improved smoke free low air-fuel ratio combustion is obtained. It also greatly increases the injection rate and reduces combustion duration that permits timing retard for lower peak cylinder pressure and improved emissions without a loss in fuel consumption. Optimization of these injection parameters offers increased power density opportunities. The lower air-fuel ratio is also conducive to simpler air-handling and lower pressure ratio turbocharger requirements. This paper includes laboratory data demonstrating a 26 percent increase in power density by optimizing these parameters with injection pressures to 200 mPa.
Technical Paper

A New Ignition Delay Formulation Applied to Predict Misfiring During Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1184
A new formulation is developed for the ignition delay (ID) in diesel engines to account for the effect of piston motion on the global autoignition reaction rates. A differentiation is made between the IDe measured in engines and IDv, measured in constant volume vessels. In addition, a method is presented to determine the coefficients of the IDe correlation from actual engine experimental data. The new formulation for IDe is applied to predict the misfiring cycles during the cold starting of diesel engines at different low ambient temperatures. The predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Monolithic Ceramic Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Components

2000-03-06
2000-01-1236
The future of maintaining a superior mobile military ground vehicle fleet rests in high power density propulsion systems. As the U.S. Government desires to convert its powerplant base to heavy fuel operation, there arises the opportunity to incorporate new advanced materials into these heavy fuel engines. These newer materials serve the purpose of decreasing powerplant weight and develop new component designs to take advantage of improved strength and temperature capability of those materials. In addition, the military continues the effort for a non-watercooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine. This type of engine demands the use of ceramic and advanced ceramic composite material hardware. Furthermore, today's higher pressure fuel injection systems, coupled with reduced air/fuel ratio as a means of increasing horsepower to size and weight, will require thermal protection or change in material specification for many of the engine's components.
Technical Paper

Advancements in High Temperature Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1237
The high temperature tribology issue for uncooled Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engines where the cylinder liner piston ring interface exceeds temperatures of 225°C to 250°C has existed for decades. It is a problem that has persistently prohibited advances in non-watercooled LHR engine development. Though the problem is not specific to non-watercooled LHR diesel engines, it is the topic of this research study for the past two and one half years. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, a tremendous amount of research had been placed upon the development of the LHR diesel engine. LHR engine finite element design and cycle simulation models had been generated. Many of these projected the cylinder liner piston ring top ring reversal (TRR) temperature to exceed 540°C[1]. In order for the LHR diesel to succeed, a tribological solution for these high TRR temperatures had to be developed.
Technical Paper

Friction Losses in Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0921
This paper presents a global friction model of a diesel engine. The model accounts for the individual contributions of the main components of the mechanical losses and the influence of specific design and operating parameters on the mechanical losses. The main components considered in the model are: the piston-ring assembly, the valve train, the bearings and auxiliaries (injection pump, oil pump and coolant pump). For each of these components, the model was developed based on geometric parameters, operating conditions and the physics governing the friction. The individual models were assembled in a global friction model of a multicylinder diesel engine, and a computer code was developed to simulate the total mechanical losses of the engine. The experimental validation of the model was obtained by comparing the simulated crankshaft's speed variation with the instantaneous speed measured by a shaft encoder.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Combustion in Direct-Injection Low Swirl Heavy-Duty Type Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0228
A two phase, global combustion model has been developed for quiescent chamber, direct injection diesel engines. The first stage of the model is essentially a spark ignition engine flame spread model which has been adapted to account for fuel injection effects. During this stage of the combustion process, ignition and subsequent flame spread/heat release are confined to a mixing layer which has formed on the injected jet periphery during the ignition delay period. Fuel consumption rate is dictated by mixing layer dynamics, laminar flame speed, large scale turbulence intensity, and local jet penetration rate. The second stage of the model is also a time scale approach which is explicitly controlled by the global mixing rate. Fuel-air preparation occurs on a large-scale level throughout this phase of the combustion process with each mixed fuel parcel eventually burning at a characteristic time scale as dictated by the global mixing rate.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Friction Model of the Piston Ring Assembly

1999-03-01
1999-01-0974
This paper presents a simplified piston ring assembly (PRA) friction model accounting for the piston ring pack and the piston skirt. The ring model considers both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication; the skirt model considers hydrodynamic lubrication only. The Reynold's equation is used as a governing equation for the hydrodynamic regimes of both models. Simplified assumptions are used for the mixed lubrication in the ring model. The ring model generates unique Stribeck curves for a given ring's geometry; the skirt model generates generic relationships between the friction force and skirt geometry, piston speed, oil viscosity, and assumed boundary conditions. Ring starvation effects are introduced by varying the boundary conditions, as appropriate. The results of the models are compared to measurements made on a motored and fired single cylinder diesel engine; the theoretical calculations provide a reasonable estimate of the measured data.
Technical Paper

Injection Characteristics that Improve Performance of Ceramic Coated Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0972
Thin thermal barrier ceramic coatings were applied to a standard production direct injection diesel engine. The resultant fuel economy when compared to the standard metallic engine at full load and speed (2600) was 6% better and 3.5% better at 1600 RPM. Most coated diesel engines todate have not shown significant fuel economy one way or the other. Why are the results more positive in this particular case? The reasons were late injection timing, high injection pressure with high injection rates to provide superior heat release rates with resultant lower fuel consumption. The recent introduction of the high injection pressure fuel injection system makes it possible to have these desirable heat release rates at the premixed combustion period. Of course the same injection characteristics were applied to the standard and the thin thermal barrier coating case. The thin thermal barrier coated engine displayed superior heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Integration and Use of Diesel Engine, Driveline and Vehicle Dynamics Models for Heavy Duty Truck Simulation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0970
An integrated vehicle system simulation has been developed to take advantage of advances in physical process and component models, flexibility of graphical programming environments (such as MATLAB-SIMULINK), and ever increasing capabilities of engineering workstations. A comprehensive, transient model of the multi-cylinder engine is linked with models of the torque converter, transmission, transfer case and differentials. The engine model is based on linking the appropriate number of single-cylinder modules, with the latter being thermodynamic models of the in-cylinder processes with built-in physical sub-models and transient capabilities to ensure high fidelity predictions. Either point mass or multi-body vehicle dynamics models can be coupled with the powertrain module to produce the ground vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of High Pressure Diesel Spray and Engine Combustion

1999-10-25
1999-01-3496
An experimental study was carried out to visualize the spray and combustion inside an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access. The injection system was a hydraulically-amplified electronically-controlled unit injector capable of high injection pressure up to 180 MPa and injection rate shaping. The injection characteristics were carefully characterized with injection rate meter and with spray visualization in high-pressure chamber. The intake air was supplied by a compressor and heated with a 40kW electrical heater to simulate turbocharged intake condition. In addition to injection and cylinder pressure measurements, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process. The results showed that optically accessible engines provide very useful information for studying the diesel combustion conditions, which also provided a very critical test for diesel combustion models.
Technical Paper

Effect of Smoothing the Pressure Trace on the Interpretation of Experimental Data for Combustion in Diesel Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0931
The disturbances in the cylinder gas pressure trace caused by combustion in internal combustion engines have an impact on the shape of the rate of heat (energy) release (RHR). It is necessary to smooth the pressure trace before carrying out the RHR calculations and making any interpretations for the combustion process. Different smoothing methods are analyzed and their features compared. Furthermore, the selection of the smoothing starting point and its effect on the smoothing quality of pressure data are described. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is applied to determine the frequency of the disturbances in power spectrum and obtain the optimal specified smoothing parameter (SSP). The experimental data was obtained on a single-cylinder research diesel engine, running under simulated turbocharged steady state conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of engine operating parameters such as injection pressures, injection timing, and EGR ratios.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1071
This paper presents an experimental investigation conducted to determine the parameters that control the behavior of autoignition in a small-bore, single-cylinder, optically-accessible diesel engine. Depending on operating conditions, three types of autoignition are observed: a single ignition, a two-stage process where a low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame precedes the main premixed combustion, and a two-stage process where the LTHR or cool flame is separated from the main heat release by an apparent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Experiments were conducted using commercial grade low-sulfur diesel fuel with a common-rail injection system. An intensified CCD camera was used for ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of chemiluminescent autoignition reactions under various operating conditions including fuel injection pressures, engine temperatures and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Pressure and Temperature on the Auto-Ignition of Fuels with Different Cetane Number and Volatility

2012-04-16
2012-01-1317
This paper investigates the effect of boost pressure and intake temperature on the auto-ignition of fuels with a wide range of properties. The fuels used in this investigation are ULSD (CN 45), FT-SPK (CN 61) and two blends of JP-8 (with CN 25 and 49). Detailed analysis of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces are made to correlate the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the events immediately following start of injection leading to combustion. A CFD model is applied to track the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the formation of different chemical species and study their role and contribution in the auto-ignition reactions. Results from a previous investigation on the effect of intake temperature on auto-ignition of these fuels are compared with the results of this investigation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1203
The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control Using Ion Current Signal in a Diesel Engine

2012-04-01
2011-01-2433
Signals indicative of in-cylinder combustion have been under investigation for the control of diesel engines to meet stringent emission standards and other production targets in performance and fuel economy. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the use of the ion current signal for the close loop control of a heavy duty four cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. A correlation is developed between the start of ion current signal (SIC) and the location of the peak of premixed combustion (LPPC) in the rate of heat release trace. Based on this correlation, a PID closed loop controller is developed to adjust the injection timing for proper combustion phasing under steady and transient engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Biodiesel Blends on Autoignition, Combustion, Performance and Engine-Out Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0489
The effects of different blends of Soybean Methyl Ester (biodiesel) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel: B-00 (ULSD), B-20, B-40, B-60, B-80 and B-100 (biodiesel); on autoignition, combustion, performance, and engine out emissions of different species including particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm under simulated turbocharged conditions at 5 bar IMEP load with varied injection pressures at a medium swirl of 3.77 w ithout EGR. Analysis of test results was done to determine the role of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend on the basic thermodynamic and combustion processes under fuel injection pressures ranging from 600 bar to 1200 bar.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel (B-20) on Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1401
The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0652
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Journal Article

Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the EGR Cooler

2008-04-14
2008-01-0956
EGR is a proven technology used to reduce NOx formation in both compression and spark ignition engines by reducing the combustion temperature. In order to further increase its efficiency the recirculated gases are subjected to cooling. However, this leads to a higher load on the cooling system of the engine, thus requiring a larger radiator. In the case of turbocharged engines the large variations of the pressures, especially in the exhaust manifold, produce a highly pulsating EGR flow leading to non-steady-state heat transfer in the cooler. The current research presents a method of determining the pulsating flow field and the instantaneous heat transfer in the EGR heat exchanger. The processes are simulated using the CFD code FIRE (AVL) and the results are subjected to validation by comparison with the experimental data obtained on a 2.5 liter, four cylinder, common rail and turbocharged diesel engine.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

2008-04-14
2008-01-1086
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
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