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Technical Paper

Accuracy of Particle Number Measurements from Partial Flow Dilution Systems

The measurement of the particle number (PN) concentration of non-volatile particles ≻23 nm was introduced in the light-duty vehicles regulation; the heavy-duty regulation followed. Based on the findings of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP), heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise, the PN concentration measurement can be conducted either from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS) or from the partial flow dilution system (PFDS). However, there are no other studies that investigate whether the PN results from the two systems are equivalent. In addition, even the PMP study never investigated the uncertainty that is introduced at the final result from the extraction of a flow by a PN system from the PFDS. In this work we investigate the uncertainty for the three possible cases, i.e., considering a constant extracted flow from the PFDS, sending a signal with 1 Hz frequency to the PFDS, or feeding back the extracted flow to the PFDS.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Particulate Mass and Number Measurement with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) for In-Use Testing

Different particulate mass (PM) portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) were evaluated in the lab with three heavy-duty diesel engines which cover a wide range of particle emission levels. For the two engines without Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) the proportional partial flow dilution systems SPC-472, OBS-TRPM, and micro-PSS measured 15% lower PM than the full dilution tunnel (CVS). The micro soot sensor (MSS), which measures soot in real time, measured 35% lower. For the DPF-equipped engine, where the emissions were in the order of 2 mg/kWh, the systems had differences from the CVS higher than 50%. For on-board testing a real-time sensor is necessary to convert the gravimetric (filter)-based PM to second-by-second mass emissions. The detection limit of the sensor, the particle property it measures (e.g., number, surface area or mass, volatiles or non-volatiles) and its calibration affect the estimated real-time mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dry Soot and Particulate Matter from Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Snowmobiles

Recent increases in emissions regulations within the snowmobile industry have led to significant advancements in fuel, exhaust, and control systems on snowmobiles. However, particulate matter is currently an unregulated exhaust component of snowmobile engines. The measurement of dry soot as well as particulate matter from snowmobiles is the focus of this paper. Two industry-representative snowmobiles were chosen for this research which included a 2006 Yamaha Nytro carbureted four-stroke and a 2009 Ski-Doo MX-Z direct-injected two-stroke. Measurements for each snowmobile included gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, NOx, O₂, and THC), particulate matter collected on quartz filters, and dry soot measured using an AVL Micro Soot Sensor. Each snowmobile was tested over the industry-standard five-mode emissions certification test cycle to determine the emissions, dry soot, and particulate matter levels from idle to wide open throttle (full-load).
Journal Article

Sampling of Non-Volatile Vehicle Exhaust Particles: A Simplified Guide

Recently, a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty vehicles legislation. The legislation requires measurement of PN, and particulate mass (PM), from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS). Furthermore, PN measurements will be introduced in the next stage of the European Heavy-Duty regulation. Heavy-duty engine certification can be done either from the CVS or from a partial flow dilution system (PFDS). For research and development purposes, though, measurements are often conducted from the raw exhaust, thereby avoiding the high installation costs of CVS and PFDS. Although for legislative measurements requirements exist regarding sampling and transport of the aerosol sample, such requirements do not necessarily apply for raw exhaust measurements. Thus, measurement differences are often observed depending on where in the experimental set up sampling occurs.
Technical Paper

CMS - An Evolution of the CVS - A Full Flow, Constant Mass Flow, Sampling System

The CMS system commissioned by EPA and built by AVL, is a “start from a clean sheet of paper” approach to a full flow sampling system for aerosol matter from engine exhaust. The challenge of measuring 2007 level post DPF type particulate matter and polyaromatic hydrocarbons led to this re-thinking of sampler design. Previously used CVS designs had evolved to include elements that were not ideally suited for scaling up to large flow rates, and had mixing tunnels that were less than ideal for the sampling of complicated aerosols. The solution presented in this paper used ultrasonic time-of-flight flowmeters in place of the usual Venturi flow tubes, reducing the size and cost of air handling components. Acoustically designed dampeners were used to reduce pulsation disturbances to the flow measurement.
Technical Paper

A Photoacoustic Sensor System for Time Resolved Quantification of Diesel Soot Emissions

The reduction of particulate emissions limits requires new tools for the tuning of engines and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Time-resolved monitoring of low soot emissions is a key feature for such developments. The paper describes an improved photoacoustic soot sensor, and presents its applications for the characterization of transient exhaust soot emissions before and after Diesel emission after-treatment systems. The detection limit of the unit is around 5 μg/m3 soot, which is two orders of magnitude better than conventional time-resolved transmission measurement. Additionally, a wide dynamic range of four orders of magnitude can be achieved without range switching. The photoacoustic signal is proportional to the soot mass, no significant cross-sensitivities to gaseous absorbers were detected.
Technical Paper

DVE - Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement using Head-type Flowmeters

When exhaust emissions from a vehicle are measured, a flow rate is needed in addition to pollutant concentrations in order to calculate the mass emitted. The highly unsteady flow from an internal combustion engine presents measurement challenges to exhaust flowmeters, especially at idle. Mass measurement methods used in the past have gotten around this problem by a variable dilution scheme (CVS) that measures a different, more favorable flow, but reduces and can contaminate exhaust gas concentration levels. The flow measurement system described here makes possible a more accurate measure of the vehicle exhaust flow by means of a number of design features. This improves considerably the cost effectiveness and accuracy of emissions measurement techniques such as the Bag-Minidiluter sampling system and raw modal analysis.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Measurement with Partial Flow Sampling: Systems A New Probe and Tunnel Design that Correlates with Full Flow Tunnels

Partial flow sampling methods in emissions testing are interesting and preferred because of their lower cost, smaller size and applicability to engines of all sizes. However the agreement of the results obtained with instruments based on this method to those obtained with the traditional, large tunnel full flow sampling systems needs to be achieved, and the factors of construction that influence this agreement must be understood. These issues have received more attention lately in connection with ISO and WHDC standardization efforts underway to achieve a world-wide harmony in the sampling methods for heavy duty diesel engines, and with the introduction of similar Bag-minidiluter techniques into light duty SULEV gaseous pollutant measurement. This paper presents the theory and practice of a partial flow probe and tunnel design that addresses and minimizes the undesirable effects of the necessary differences between the two sampling methods.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Measurements of Particulate Mass Emission on Light-Duty Diesel Engines under Steady State and Transient Conditions

Real-time measurements of the particulate emission of a light duty Diesel engine mounted on a dynamic test bed are reported. These measurements were performed using a novel device for the simultaneous dynamic determination of graphitic (“black”) smoke and hydrocarbon mass loading in the undiluted exhaust with a time resolution of 0.1 sec. For a given speed and load significant differences between the emissions under steady state and transient conditions were observed. The typical features of these deviations were different for the graphitic particulates and the hydrocarbons.
Journal Article

Overview of Soot Emission Measurements Instrumentation: From Smoke and Filter Mass to Particle Number

Particulate emissions cause adverse health effects and for this reason they are regulated since the 80s. Vehicle regulations cover particulate emission measurements of a model before its sale, known as type approval or homologation. For heavy-duty engines the emissions are measured on an engine dynamometer with steady state points and transient cycles. For light-duty vehicles (i.e. the full power train) the particulate emissions are assessed on a chassis dynamometer. The measurement of particulate emissions is conducted either by diluting the whole exhaust in a dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling or by extracting a small proportional part of the exhaust gas and diluting it. Particulate emissions are measured by passing part of the diluted exhaust aerosol through a filter paper. The increase of the weight of the filter is used to calculate the particulate matter mass (PM) emissions.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Very Low Particulate Mass Emissions Measurement

Pending reductions in light duty vehicle PM emissions standards from 10 to 3 mg/mi and below will push the limits of the gravimetric measurement method. At these levels the PM mass collected approaches the mass of non-particle gaseous species that adsorb onto the filter from exhaust and ambient air. This introduces an intrinsic lower limit to filter based measurement that is independent of improvements achieved in weighing metrology. The statistical variability of back-up filter measurements at these levels makes them an ineffective means for correcting the adsorption artifact. The proposed subtraction of a facility based estimate of the artifact will partially alleviate the mass bias from adsorption, but its impact on weighing variability remains a problem that can reach a significant fraction of the upcoming 3 and future 1 mg/mi standards. This paper proposes an improved PM mass method that combines the gravimetric filter approach with real time aerosol measurement.
Technical Paper

A New Device for Transient Measurement of Ultralow Soot Emissions

Future legislation, like EURO IV and EURO V or the US 2007 HD regulation will have massive reduction of particulate emission limits. For this beside improvement of engine combustion also exhaust aftertreatment systems are under investigation, like Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxides. For all those tasks transient soot emission monitoring is one of the key features. To meet this demand a new device for the on-line measurement of soot emitted by combustion engines has been developed. Based on the photoacoustic principle, which has been optimized for automotive applications and easy use in test cells, the instrument shows a sensitivity of 5μg/m3, which is lower than current particulate immission standards in ambient air, and a time resolution of 1 sec. In the paper first the principles of measurement are shown, and then the specifications and results from measurements of very low soot concentration in the exhaust gas are presented.