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Journal Article

Effect of Fuel and Thermal Stratifications on the Operational Range of an HCCI Gasoline Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0845
In order to extend the HCCI high load operational limit, the effects of the distributions of temperature and fuel concentration on pressure rise rate (dP/dθ) were investigated through theoretical and experimental methods. The Blow-Down Super Charge (BDSC) and the EGR guide parts are employed simultaneously to enhance thermal stratification inside the cylinder. And also, to control the distribution of fuel concentration, direct fuel injection system was used. As a first step, the effect of spatial temperature distribution on maximum pressure rise rate (dP/dθmax) was investigated. The influence of the EGR guide parts on the temperature distribution was investigated using 3-D numerical simulation. Simulation results showed that the temperature difference between high temperature zone and low temperature zone increased by using EGR guide parts together with the BDSC system.
Technical Paper

Quantitative 2-D Gas Concentration Measurement by Laser-Beam Scanning Technique with Combination of Absorption and Fluorescense

2003-10-27
2003-01-3153
In order to measure the spatial distribution of fuel jet concentration quantitatively, a technique combining methods of fluorescence with absorption was developed. LIF method can obtain the spatial fuel distribution qualitatively, but quantitative measurement is difficult. Meanwhile, laser-beam absorption method can quantitatively obtain the integrated jet concentration on the light-path. In addition, scanning the laser-beam allows for a quasi 2-D quantitative measurement of the jet concentration. Firstly, in this study, this measurement system was tested in a homogeneously charged field while varying the dopant NO2 concentration, the laser-beam scanning speed, and the ambient pressure. As a result, some data-correction techniques were developed to produce a quantitative measurement. Secondly, this system was applied to gaseous jet fields in a constant volume bomb.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a PFI Motorcycle Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0767
PFI (Port Fuel Injection) gasoline engines for motorcycles have some problems such as slow transient response because of wall wet of fuel caused by the injector's layout. Hence, it is important to understand the characteristics of fuel sprays such as droplet size and distribution of fuel concentration. Considering the spray formation in a port, there are three kinds of the essential elements: breakup, evaporation and wall impingement. However, it is difficult to observe three of them at the same time. Therefore, the authors have made research step by step. In the authors' previous study, the authors focused on the wall collision, droplet sizes, droplet speeds and the space distribution of the droplets. In this study, the authors focused on evaporation. A direct sampling method using FID (Flame Ionization Detector) for evaporating fuel was established and the concentration distribution of evaporating fuel in the port was measured and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Droplet Diameter and Fuel Concentration in a Non-Evaporating Diesel Spray by Means of an image Analysis of Shadow Photographs

1984-02-01
840276
A new method was developed which measures the atomization characteristics of a non-evaporating, axisymmetric diesel spray: The film image density of the high speed focused shadow photographs of a spray was analyzed based on the incident light extinction principle, and the Sauter mean diameter and the fuel concentration distribution were calculated from the image data and the measured injection rate with the help of the onion peeling model. The measured Sauter mean diameter showed good agreement with the diameter measured by the conventional immersion method, and also the measured fuel concentration distribution along the spray axis was proved to coincide well with the predicted result by Che one dimentional quasi-steady jet model except at a region near the spray tip.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Rate of Heat Release of an Axisymmetrical Diesel Flame in a Rapid Compression Machine

1984-02-01
840519
A phenomenological model for predicting the rate of heat release of an axisymmetrical diesel flame which was achieved in a rapid compression machine has been proposed: Basing on the experimental observations, authors have introduced a new expression about the effects of abrupt thermal expansion due to the initial combustion on the air entrainment. A simple probability density function was also employed to express the distribution of the local equivalence ratio in the flame. The predicted rate of heat release showed good agreement with the experimental results in the diffusion combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine by Means of Image Analysis of Nega-Color Photographs

1981-02-01
810183
A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Fuel Vapor Concentration in an Unsteady Evaporating Spray via a 2-D Mie-Scattering Imaging Technique

1993-10-01
932653
The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

1991-02-01
910223
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion of Fuel Droplets in an Unsteady Spray via Discrete Vortex Method

1995-10-01
952433
The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow and Stratified Mixture on HCCI Combustion in High Load

2018-10-30
2018-32-0016
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder flow and stratified mixture on HCCI combustion by experiments and three-dimensional computer fluid dynamics coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The first study was conducted using a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) equipped with a flow generation plate to create in-cylinder turbulent flow and with a control unit of in-cylinder wall temperature to create in-cylinder temperature distribution. The study assesses the effect of the turbulent flow and the temperature distribution on HCCI combustion. In the second study, the numerical simulation of HCCI combustion was conducted using large eddy simulation coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The study analyzes the interaction between in-cylinder turbulent flow and mixture distribution and HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixture Distributions on Combustion Characteristics in a HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0061
It has been widely known that thermal and fuel stratifications of in-cylinder mixture are effective to reduce in-cylinder pressure rise rate during high load HCCI operations. In order to optimize a combustion chamber design and combustion control strategy for HCCI engines with wide operational range, it is important to know quantitatively the influence of the temperature and fuel concentration distributions on ignition and heat release characteristics. At the same time, it is important to know the influence of in-cylinder flow and turbulence on the temperature and fuel concentration distributions. In this study, a numerical simulation of HCCI combustion were conducted to investigate the effects of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and the distributions of temperature on ignition and combustion characteristics in HCCI combustion.
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