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Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

2013-09-24
2013-01-2422
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
Technical Paper

CFD-Guided Combustion Strategy Development for a Higher Reactivity Gasoline in a Light-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0740
The current study utilized 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion analysis to guide the development of a viable full load range combustion strategy in a light-duty gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine. A higher reactivity gasoline that has a research octane number (RON) of 70 was used for the combustion strategy development. The engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14.5 with a piston bowl designed to accommodate different combustion strategies and injector spray patterns. Detailed combustion optimization was focused on 6 and 18 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPg) at 1500 rpm through a Design of Experiments approach. Two different strategies were investigated: (a) a late triggering fuel injection with a wide spray angle (combustion strategy #1); and (b) an early triggering fuel injection with a narrow spray angle (combustion strategy #2).
Technical Paper

Mixing-Controlled Combustion of Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0696
This research investigates the combustion characteristics and engine performance of a conventional non-ethanol gasoline with a research octane number of 91(RON 91) and a higher reactivity RON80 gasoline under mixing-controlled combustion. The work was conducted in a model year 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine. A split fuel injection strategy was developed to address the long ignition delay and high maximum pressure rise rate for the two gasoline fuels. Using the split fuel injection strategy, steady-state NOx sweeps were conducted at 1375 rpm with a load sweep from 5 to 15 bar BMEP. At 5 and 10 bar BMEP, both gasolines consistently exhibited lower soot levels than ULSD with the reduction more pronounced at 5 bar BMEP. 3-D CFD combustion simulation suggested that the higher volatility and lower viscosity of gasoline fuels can help improve the in-cylinder air utilization and therefore reduce the presence of fuel-rich regions in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0226
This research investigates the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) to achieve low engine-out NOx emissions with high fuel efficiency in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental work was conducted in a model year (MY) 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine, covering a load range of 5 to 15 bar BMEP at 1375 rpm. The engine compression ratio (CR) was reduced from the production level of 18.9 to 15.7 without altering the combustion bowl design. In this work, four gasolines with research octane number (RON) ranging from 58 to 93 were studied. Overall, GCI operation resulted in enhanced premixed combustion, improved NOx-soot tradeoffs, and similar or moderately improved fuel efficiency compared to diesel combustion. A split fuel injection strategy was employed for the two lower reactivity gasolines (RON80 and RON93), while the RON60 and RON70 gasolines used a single fuel injection strategy.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Journal Article

A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) Approach for Rapid Optimization Using High-Performance Computing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0190
A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) approach was developed to virtually discover optimum designs using training data generated from multi-dimensional simulations. Machine learning (ML) presents a pathway to transform complex physical processes that occur in a combustion engine into compact informational processes. In the present work, a total of over 2000 sector-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a heavy-duty engine were performed. These were run concurrently on a supercomputer to reduce overall turnaround time. The engine being optimized was run on a low-octane (RON70) gasoline fuel under partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. A total of nine input parameters were varied, and the CFD simulation cases were generated by randomly sampling points from this nine-dimensional input space. These input parameters included fuel injection strategy, injector design, and various in-cylinder flow and thermodynamic conditions at intake valve closure (IVC).
Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

2019-04-02
2019-01-1145
Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
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