Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 10 of 10
Technical Paper

Development of Compact SCR Systems with Closely Coupled Injector Configurations

In order to satisfy China IV (equivalent to EU IV) emission regulations, an unconventional design concept was proposed with injector closely coupled with SCR can body. The benefit of this design is that the urea decomposition pipe was removed or drastically shortened, resulting in much smaller packaging space and lower cost of the whole system. However, the resulting short urea mixing distance generates concerns on low urea mixing efficiency and risks of urea deposits. In particular, airless urea injectors tend to generate incomplete evaporation of urea water solution, resulting in high risks of urea deposits. New aftertreatment mixing structures need to be developed to resolve these technical challenges.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Mini and Full Flow Burner Systems for Diesel Engine Aftertreatment under Low Temperature Conditions

With introductions of stringent diesel engine emission regulations, the DOC and DPF systems have become the mainstream technology to eliminate soot particles through diesel combustion under various operation conditions. Urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technical direction to reduce NOx emissions. For both technologies, low-temperature conditions or cold start conditions pose challenges to activate DOC or SCR emission-reduction performance. To address this issue, mini or full flow burner systems may be used to increase exhaust temperature to reach DOC light-off or SCR initiation temperature by combustion of diesel fuel. In essence, the burner systems incorporate a fuel injector, spray atomization, proper fuel / air mixing mechanisms, and combustion control as independent heat sources.
Technical Paper

Development of Injector Closely-Coupled SCR System for Horizontal Inlet Configurations

In order to satisfy China IV emissions regulations, a unique design concept was proposed with injector closely coupled with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system outer body. The benefit of this design is significant in cost reduction and installation convenience. One paper was published to describe the vertical inlet layout [1]; this work is the second part describing applications of this concept to horizontal inlet configurations. For horizontal inlet pipe, two mixing pipe designs were proposed to avoid urea deposit and meet EU IV emission regulations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to evaluate two design concepts; experiments were performed to validate both designs. CFD computations and experiments give the same direction on ranking of the two decomposition tubes. With the straight decomposition pipe design and unique perforated baffle design, no urea deposits were found; in addition, the emission level satisfied EU IV regulations.
Technical Paper

Urea SCR System Development for Large Diesel Engines

The introduction of stringent EPA 2015 regulations for locomotive / marine engines and IMO 2016 Tier III marine engines initiates the need to develop large diesel engine aftertreatment systems to drastically reduce emissions such as SOx, PM, NOx, unburned HC and CO. In essence, the aftertreatment systems must satisfy a comprehensive set of performance criteria with respect to back pressure, emission reduction efficiency, mixing, urea deposits, packaging, durability, cost and others. For on-road and off-road vehicles, urea-based SCR has been the mainstream technology to reduce NOx emissions. For category II marine engines with single cylinder displacement volumes between 7 liters and 30 liters, IMO III (Tier IV) emission regulations dictate approximately 80% reduction of NOx emissions vs. Tier II emission regulations [1]. Urea / ammonia SCR is being considered as an enabling technology to achieve IMO III regulations without significant impacts on engine performance and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Compound Power-Split Hybrid Transmission Based on Altered Ravigneaux Gear Set

Several types of power-split hybrid transmissions are outlined and the strengths and weaknesses of typical compound power-split prototype designs are summarized in this paper. Based on an modified Ravigneaux gear set, a novel compound power-split hybrid transmission with compact mechanical structure is presented, its dynamic and kinematic characteristics in equations and operating modes are described, and then equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the proposed compound power-split device. Control strategies in different operating modes are discussed with the simplified combined lever diagram, and a global optimization method is implemented to find the optimum operation point for the hybrid powertrain. To evaluate the fuel economy of a hybrid car equipped with this hybrid transmission, a forward powertrain simulation model is developed and real vehicle performance tests are conducted in the chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Compound Power-Split Hybrid Transmission for Electric Drive

A novel compound power-split hybrid transmission based on a modified Ravigneaux gear set is presented. The equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the electric operating modes for the hybrid powertrain, and then its dynamic and kinematic characteristics as well as efficiency characteristics are described in equations. A brake clutch mounted on the carrier shaft is proposed to enhance the electric driving efficiency for the hybrid transmission. Three types of electric operating mode are analyzed by the simplified combined lever diagrams and the system efficiency and torque characteristics for these electric operating modes are compared. A major influence on output torque of the hybrid transmission derived from the torque capability of motors and brake clutch is depicted.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Subsection Coordinated Control during Mode Transition for a Compound Power-Split System

The power-split transmission is considered as one of the major technologies for hybrid electric vehicles. It utilizes two electric motors/generators (MGs) and a power-split device (planetary gear sets) to make the speed of internal combustion engine (ICE) independent from the vehicle speed, and in that way enables the ICE to operate in a high-efficiency region under all driving cycles. In this study, a compound power-split hybrid system integrated with a two-planetary gear train is proposed. To suppress the vehicle jerk intensity and improve the driving comfort during the transition from EV (Electric Vehicle) mode to HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) mode, a torque coordinated control strategy is derived. Based on the analysis of mode transition in different sections, mathematical models of each section are deduced, respectively. Then a model-based torque coordinated control method is used to solve out the target output torques of ICE, MGs and brakes in each mode transition phase.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a New Range-Extension Hybrid Powertrain Concept

A new range-extension hybrid powertrain concept, namely the Tongji Extended-range Hybrid Technology (TJEHT) was developed and demonstrated in this study. This hybrid system is composed of a direct-injection gasoline engine, a traction motor, an Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG) motor, and a transmission. In addition, an electronically controlled clutch between the ISG motor and engine, and an electronically controlled synchronizer between the ISG motor and transmission are also employed in the transmission case. Hence, this system can provide six basic operating modes including the single-motor driving, dual-motor driving, serial driving, parallel driving, engine-only driving and regeneration mode depending on the engagement status of the clutch and synchronizer. Importantly, the unique dual-motor operation mode can improve vehicle acceleration performance and the overall operating efficiency.
Technical Paper

System Evaluation Method for Two Planetary Gears Hybrid Powertrain under Gray Relational Analysis Based on Fuzzy AHP and Entropy Weight Method

Millions of configurations of power-split hybrid powertrain can be generated due to variation in number of planetary-gear sets (PG), difference in number, type and installation location of shift actuators (clutches or brakes), and difference in connection positions of power components. Considering the large number of configurations, complex structures and control modes, it is vital to construct an appropriate multi-index system evaluation method, which directly affects the requirement fulfillment, the time and cost of 2-PG system configuration design. Considering one-sidedness (dynamics and economic performance), simplicity (linear combination of indicators) and subjectivity (relying on expert experience) of previous system evaluation method of 2-PG system design, a more systematic evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The proposed evaluation system consists of five aspects, involving dynamic, economy, comfort, reliability and cost, and more than 20 indexes.