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Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

2019-07-02
Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fatigue Life of Wheels in Commercial Vehicles

2018-08-21
Abstract In India, vehicle population increases every day along with road accidents by 2.5% every year. About 7.7% of accidents are caused by wheel separation, 60% of which are due to nut-related problems. Wheel separations in vehicles occur due to fastener issues and fatigue failures in bolts. A study of the reasons for and mechanisms of nut loosening showed that left-hand side wheels detached and fracture failure occurred in right-hand side studs. Fatigue life of wheels with Nord-Lock washer and without washer is determined by using numerical analysis as per the IS 9438 cornering fatigue test. These numerical results are compared with experimental results.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

2019-01-08
Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

2019-09-05
Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Innovative Approach of Wedge Washer to Avoid Bolt Loosening in Automotive Applications

2017-10-08
Abstract Automotive vehicle includes various systems like engine, transmission, exhaust, air intake, cooling and many more systems. No doubt the performance of individual system depends upon their core design. But for performance, the system needs to be fastened properly. In automotive, most of the joints used fasteners which helps in serviceability of the components. There are more than thousands of fasteners used in the vehicle. At various locations, we found issue of bolt loosening and because of this design intent performance has not met by the system. During product development of ECS (Engine cooling system), various issues reported to loosening the bolt. The pre-mature failure of bolt loosening, increases the interest in young engineers for understanding the behavior of fastener in vehicle running conditions. This paper focuses on the design of wedge shape of washer to avoid bolt loosening.
Journal Article

Mixture Distributions in Autonomous Decision-Making for Industry 4.0

2019-05-29
Abstract Industry 4.0 is expected to revolutionize product development and, in particular, manufacturing systems. Cyber-physical production systems and digital twins of the product and process already provide the means to predict possible future states of the final product given the current production parameters. With the advent of further data integration coupled with the need for autonomous decision-making, methods are needed to make decisions in real time and in an environment of uncertainty in both the possible outcomes and in the stakeholders’ preferences over them. This article proposes a method of autonomous decision-making in data-intensive environments, such as a cyber-physical assembly system. Theoretical results in group decision-making and utility maximization using mixture distributions are presented. This allows us to perform calculations on expected utility accurately and efficiently through closed-form expressions, which are also provided.
Journal Article

Effect of Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Friction Stir-Welded DP600 Steel

2019-07-02
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) parameters on the microstructure and tensile properties of dual-phase (DP) steels. In this regard, DP600 steel sheets were joined using FSW under different tool rotational (ω) and transverse speeds (v). Optical microstructure of the stir zone exhibited a mixture of bainite, Widmanstatten ferrite, grain boundary ferrite, and ferrite-carbide (FC) aggregate, which resulted in a hardness increase compared to the base metal (BM). The fraction of bainite and Widmanstatten ferrite in the stir zone increased with increasing the welding heat input. Formation of a softened zone in the subcritical area of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) resulted in the reduction of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation compared to those for the BM, while the yield strength was only marginally affected.
Journal Article

Nondestructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2019-10-15
Abstract Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Journal Article

Assessing Viscosity in Hydro-Erosive Grinding Process via Refractometry

2019-08-22
Abstract The manufacturing of diesel injector nozzles requires precision processing to produce multiple micro-holes. An abrasive fluid containing a mixture of mineral oil and hard particles is used for rounding them, ensuring the hydrodynamics of the injection. As verified in a previous investigation, the viscosity of the fluid undergoes uncontrolled changes during hydro-erosive (HE) grinding. Such undesired viscosity changes are detrimental to the process and difficult to assess. The current investigation aims to study the possibility of using the refractive index of the oils used in the HE grinding for assessing their viscosities. A calibration curve correlating the refractive index and viscosity was obtained from the analysis of samples produced by mixing two distinct mineral oils in different proportions. The determined calibration curve was tested with 45 samples of filtered oil, collected directly from the tanks during the HE grinding.
Journal Article

Increased Thread Load Capability of Bolted Joints in Light Weight Design

2017-06-29
Abstract Within the scope of today’s product development in automotive engineering, the aim is to produce lighter and solid parts with higher capabilities. On the one hand lightweight materials such as aluminum or magnesium are used, but on the other hand, increased stresses on these components cause higher bolt forces in joining technology. Therefore screws with very high strength rise in importance. At the same time, users need reliable and effective design methods to develop new products at reasonable cost in short time. The bolted joints require a special structural design of the thread engagement in low-strength components. Hence an extension of existing dimensioning of the thread engagement for modern requirements is necessary. In the context of this contribution, this will be addressed in two ways: on one hand extreme situations (low strength nut components and high-strength fasteners) are considered.
Journal Article

Classification of Contact Forces in Human-Robot Collaborative Manufacturing Environments

2018-04-02
Abstract This paper presents a machine learning application of the force/torque sensor in a human-robot collaborative manufacturing scenario. The purpose is to simplify the programming for physical interactions between the human operators and industrial robots in a hybrid manufacturing cell which combines several robotic applications, such as parts manipulation, assembly, sealing and painting, etc. A multiclass classifier using Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) is first introduced in a robotic application for discriminating five different contact states w.r.t. the force/torque data. A systematic approach to train machine-learning based classifiers is presented, thus opens a door for enabling LightGBM with robotic data process. The total task time is reduced largely because force transitions can be detected on-the-fly. Experiments on an ABB force sensor and an industrial robot demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
Journal Article

Response of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Property in Different Zones of As-Welded Ductile Iron (DI)

2018-05-08
Abstract Sound ductile iron (DI) welded joints were performed using developed coated electrode and optimized welding parameters including post weld heat treatment (PWHT).Weldments consisting of weld metal, partially melted zone (PMZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were austenitized at 900 °C for 2 hour and austempered at 300 °C and 350 °C for three different holding time (1.5 hour, 2 hour and 2.5 hour). In as-weld condition, microstructures of weld metal and PMZ show ledeburitic carbide and alloyed pearlite, but differ with their amount. Whereas microstructure of HAZ shows pearlite with some ledeburitic carbide and base metal shows only ferrite.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Plastic Deformation in Self-Pierce Riveting of Dissimilar Aluminum-to-Magnesium Alloys

2018-05-08
Abstract In this work, the complex relationship between deformation history and residual stresses in a magnesium-to-aluminum self-pierce riveted (SPR) joint is elucidated using numerical and experimental approaches. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations incorporating strain rate and temperature effects were performed to model the deformation in the SPR process. In order to accurately capture the deformation, a stress triaxiality-based damage material model was employed to capture the sheet piercing from the rivet. Strong visual comparison between the physical cross-section of the SPR joint and the simulation was achieved. To aid in understanding of the role of deformation in the riveting process and to validate the modeling approach, several experimental measurements were conducted. To quantify the plastic deformation from the piercing of the rivet, micro hardness mapping was performed on a cross-section of the SPR joint.
Journal Article

Influence of the Friction Coefficient in Self-Pierce Riveting Simulations: A Statistical Analysis

2018-05-08
Abstract In this work, optimal modeling parameters for self-pierce riveting (SPR) were determined using a factorial design of experiments (DOE). In particular, we show statistically how each of the calibrating parameters used in modeling the SPR process through nonlinear finite element modeling can drastically change the geometry of the joint. The results of this study indicate that the degree of interlock, which is a key feature of a sound joint, is largely influenced by the friction between the die and bottom sheet as well as the friction between the rivet and top sheet. Furthermore, this numerical study also helped elucidate the role of friction in SPR and sheds light on how coatings with diverse friction coefficients can affect material deformation and ultimately structural integrity of the joint.
Journal Article

Machining Quality Analysis of Powertrain Components Using Plane Strain Finite Element Cutting Models

2018-05-07
Abstract Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of metal cutting is largely the domain of research organizations. Despite significant advances towards accurately modelling metal machining processes, industrial adoption of these advances has been limited. Academic studies, which mainly focused on orthogonal cutting, fail to address this discrepancy. This paper bridges the gap between simplistic orthogonal cutting models and the complex components typical in the manufacturing sector. This paper outlines how to utilize results from orthogonal cutting simulations to predict industrially relevant performance measures efficiently. In this approach, using 2D FEA cutting models a range of feed, speed and rake angles are simulated. Cutting force coefficients are then fit to the predicted cutting forces. Using these coefficients, forces for 3D cutting geometries are calculated.
Journal Article

Optimization of WEDM Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness of 2379 Steel Using Taguchi Method

2018-04-07
Abstract Surface roughness is one of the important aspects in producing quality die. Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (WEDM) is commonly used in tool and die fabrication, since the die material is usually difficult to cut using traditional metal removal processes. Selection of optimal WEDM cutting parameters is crucial to obtain quality die finish. In this study, 2379 steel which equivalent to SKD 11 is selected as the die material. Four main WEDM cutting parameters, namely, pulse duration (A), pulse interval (B), servo voltage (C), ignition pulse current (D), were experimentally evaluated for both main cut and multiple trim cuts using Taguchi Method. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is employed for experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in recognizing levels of significance of WEDM cutting parameters.
Journal Article

Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Mold with Embedded Carbon Fiber Resistor Heater - Case Study

2018-04-07
Abstract The paper presents a complete description of the design and manufacturing of a Carbon Fiber/epoxy mold with an embedded Carbon Fiber resistor heater, and the mold performances in terms of its surface temperature distribution and thermal deformations resulting from the heating. The mold was designed for manufacturing aileron skins from Vacuum Bag Only prepreg cured at 135°C. The glass transition temperature of the used resin-hardener system was about 175°C. To ensure homogenous temperature of the mold working surface in the course of curing, the Carbon Fiber heater was embedded in a layer of a highly heat-conductive cristobalite/epoxy composite, forming the core of the mold shell. Because the cristobalite/epoxy composite displayed much higher thermal expansion than CF/epoxy did, thermal stresses could arise due to this discrepancy in the course of heating.
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

2019-05-29
Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

Erosion Wear Response of Linz-Donawitz Slag Coatings: Parametric Appraisal and Prediction Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Neural Computation

2019-03-14
Abstract Slag, generated from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter, is one of the recyclable wastes in an integrated steel plant. The present work aims at utilization of waste LD slag to develop surface coatings by plasma spraying technique. This study reveals that LD slag can be gainfully used as a cost-effective wear-resistant coating material. A prediction model based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is also proposed to predict the erosion performance of these coatings. The 2.27% error shows that ANN successfully predicts the erosion wear rate of the coatings both within and beyond the experimental domain. In addition to it, a novel optimization algorithm called imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used to obtain minimum erosion wear rate of 12.12 mg/kg.
Journal Article

Study of Temperature Distribution and Parametric Optimization during FSW of AA6082 Using Statistical Approaches

2019-02-01
Abstract In this article, Al-Mg-Si-Mn alloy (AA6082) is butt joined by employing friction stir welding (FSW). The mechanical and metallurgical properties of joints are analyzed by conducting tensile and microhardness testing, respectively. To measure the temperature at different locations, eight thermocouples (L-shaped k-type) are placed at equal distance from the centerline. Least square method attempts to calculate the temperature at the centerline of joints. The process parameters are also optimized using Taguchi’s five-level experimental design. The optimum process parameters are determined, employing ultimate tensile strength (UTS) as a response parameter. A statistical test “analysis of variance” is used to check the adequacy of the model. It has been observed that rotational speed and feed rate are the predominant factors for UTS and microhardness.
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