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Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

Abstract Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code.
Journal Article

Process Regulations and Mechanism of WEDM of Combustor Material

Abstract This study discusses the experimental investigation on WEDM of combustor material (i.e., nimonic 263). Experimentation has been executed by varying pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), peak current (Ip), and spark gap voltage (Sv). Material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), and wire wear rate (WWR) are employed as process performance characteristics. Experiments are designed as per the box-Behnken design technique. Parametric optimization has also been performed using response surface methodology. Besides this, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an optical microscope are utilized to characterize WEDMed and worn-out wire surfaces. It is observed that both surfaces contain micro-cracks, craters, spherical droplets, and a lump of debris. Furthermore, the mechanism of recast layer formation has been critically evaluated to apprehend a better understanding of the technique. The key features of the experimental procedure are also highlighted.
Journal Article

Understanding the Impact of Standardized SAE Waveform Parameter Variation on Artificial Lightning Plasma, Specimen Loading, and Composite Material Damage

Abstract Previous works have established strategies to model artificial test lightning plasma with specific waveform parameters and use the predicted plasma behavior to estimate test specimen damage. To date no computational works have quantified the influence of varying the waveform parameters on the predicted plasma behavior and resulting specimen damage. Herein test standard Waveform B has been modelled and the waveform parameters of “waveform peak,” “rise time,” and “time to reach the post-peak value” have been varied. The plasma and specimen behaviors have been modelled using the Finite Element (FE) method (a Magnetohydrodynamic FE multiphysics model for the plasma, a FE thermal-electric model for the specimen). For the test arrangements modelled herein, it has been found that “peak current” is the key parameter influencing plasma properties and specimen damage.
Journal Article

Technological Stability of the Liner in a Separable Metal Composite Pressure Vessel

Abstract The article considers one of the possible mechanisms of loading the solidity of a cylindrical metal composite high-pressure vessel (MC HPV). This mechanism manifests itself as delamination of a thin-walled metal shell (liner) from a more rigid composite shell causing local buckling. A similar effect can be detected in the manufacturing process of MC HPV, when the composite shell is formed by winding with tension a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic tape on the liner. Pressure transfer from the composite shell to the liner is carried out by the method of temperature analogy, that is, by cooling the composite shell, thermally insulated from the liner. To solve the problem of externally confined liner local buckling an approach is proposed, which is based on three points: the introduction of local technological deviations inherent in actual structures, the determination of the general stress-strain state, and a real-time deforming.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fatigue Life of Wheels in Commercial Vehicles

Abstract In India, vehicle population increases every day along with road accidents by 2.5% every year. About 7.7% of accidents are caused by wheel separation, 60% of which are due to nut-related problems. Wheel separations in vehicles occur due to fastener issues and fatigue failures in bolts. A study of the reasons for and mechanisms of nut loosening showed that left-hand side wheels detached and fracture failure occurred in right-hand side studs. Fatigue life of wheels with Nord-Lock washer and without washer is determined by using numerical analysis as per the IS 9438 cornering fatigue test. These numerical results are compared with experimental results.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Multi-Degree of Freedom, Frequency Domain, Stochastic, Truck Road Load Models

Abstract A number of semi-deterministic and stochastic formulations of multi-degree of freedom, frequency domain load models for heavy truck chassis are proposed and evaluated. The semi-deterministic models aim at reproducing the damage of a specific vehicle, while the stochastic ones aim to describe a collection of vehicle loads. The stochastic models are divided into two groups: Monte Carlo based and models based on single spectrum matrices. In both cases, the objective is to provide a load model that may be used to produce a design with a certain probability of survival. The goodness of the models is evaluated through a comparison of their damage outcomes with the corresponding damages of a set of time domain loads. This original time domain load set consists of chassis accelerations collected from seven physical trucks.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Conceptualization and Modeling of a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for a Commercial Electric Bus

Abstract The following article illustrates the detailed study of the development of a unique flywheel-based regenerative braking system (f-RBS) for achieving regenerative braking in a commercial electric bus. The f-RBS is designed for installation in the front wheels of the bus. The particular data values for modeling the bus are taken from multiple legitimate sources to illustrate the development strategy of the regenerative braking system. Mechanical components used in this system have either been carefully designed and analyzed for avoiding fatigue failure or their market selection strategies explained. The positioning of the entire system is decided using MSC Adams View®, hence determining a suitable component placement strategy such that the f-RBS components do not interfere with the bus components. The entire system is modeled on MATLAB Simulink® with sufficient accuracy to get various results that would infer the performance of the system as a whole.
Journal Article

Gear Shift Quality Parameters Optimization for Critical to Quality Dimensions

Abstract Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) in passenger cars is one of the sensitive touch points, which has a direct effect on driver fatigue and drivability. In the following article, an attempt has been made to study the variance in Critical to Quality (CTQ) dimensions and their influence on GSQ parameters. CTQ matrix that shows relation between CTQ parameters and GSQ parameters is formed and is analyzed to study process capability. Impact of variance in CTQs on GSQ parameters is studied and finally has resulted intoaTolerance revisionbRemoval of C of C symbol from drawing wherever is required In an automobile transmission, the driver’s comfort of smooth shifting and selection of gears is a major concern for the transmission designer. Apart from smoother shifting and selection of gears while driving, the overall gearshift quality is also important for the transmission designer, which has a direct impact on customer delight.
Journal Article

Partial Transparency of Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion Chamber Deposits, Its Impact on Combustion Chamber Wall Temperatures and Application to Thermal Barrier Coating Design

Abstract The proven impact of combustion chamber deposits, CCD, on advanced compression ignition, ACI, combustion strategies has spurred researchers to develop thermal barrier coatings, TBC, which can mimic CCD benefits on combustion efficiency and operational range expansion. However, application of TBCs within multi-mode engines exposes them to non-negligible soot radiation. In the present paper, the impact of radiation heat transfer on combustion chamber deposits is studied. The morphological construction of the combustion chamber deposit layer is shown to be partially transparent to radiation heat transfer, drawing corollaries with ceramic-based TBCs. Additional experimentation eliminates the optical transparency of CCD to reveal an “effective radiation penetration depth” facilitated by open surface porosity. The effective radiation penetration depth is then utilized to establish the relative communicating porosity of CCD and a magnesium zirconate TBC.
Journal Article

Joint Mechanism and Prediction of Strength for a Radial Knurling Connection of Assembled Camshaft Using a Subsequent Modeling Approach

Abstract Knurling joint applied in assembled camshaft has developed rapidly in recent years, which have exhibited great advantages against conventional joint methods in the aspects of automation, joint precision, thermal damage, noise, and near net shape forming. Both quality of assembly process and joint strength are the key requirements for manufacturing a reliable assembled camshaft. In this article, a finite element predictive approach including three subsequent models (knurling, press-fit and torsion strength) has been established. Johnson-Cook material model has been used to simulate the severe plastic deformation of the material. The residual stress field calculated from the knurling process was transferred as initial condition to the press-fit model to predict the press-fit load. The predicted press-fit load, torque strength and displacement of cam profile before failure were calculated.
Journal Article

Fracture-Splitting Processing Performance Study and Comparison of the C70S6 and 36MnVS4 Connecting Rods

Abstract 36MnVS4 is a new connecting-rod fracture-splitting material. To explore why it has a high fracture- splitting defective index, this article simulated the fracture-splitting process of connecting rods. Comparing 36MnVS4 with C70S6, this article analyzed the stress-strain state of the groove roots, the position of crack initiation, the plastic deformation distribution of the fracture surface, and the splitting force changes in fracture splitting process. Results show that the crack initiation position of the 36MnVS4 connecting rod is relatively more scattered and random, and the crack starting point of the C70S6 connecting rod is more unique. Compared with the C70S6 connecting rod, the 36MnVS4 connecting rod has an earlier crack initiation time and smaller fracture-splitting force. Therefore, the 36MnVS4 has higher gap sensitivity and its fracture surface is more prone to tear.
Journal Article

Analysis of Temperature Swing Thermal Insulation for Performance Improvement of Diesel Engines

Abstract Insulating combustion chamber surfaces with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provides thermal efficiency improvement when done appropriately. This article reports on insulation heat transfer, engine performance characteristics, and damage modelling of “temperature swing” TBCs. “Temperature swing” insulation refers to the insulation material applied on surfaces of combustion chamber walls that enables selective manipulation of its surface temperature profile over the four strokes of an engine cycle. A combined GT Suite-ANSYS Fluent simulation methodology is developed to investigate the impact of thermal properties and insulation thickness for a variety of TBC materials for its “temperature swing” characteristics. This one-dimensional transient heat conduction analyses and engine cycle simulations are performed using scaled-down thermal properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia.
Journal Article

Finite Element Thermo-Structural Methodology for Investigating Diesel Engine Pistons with Thermal Barrier Coating

Abstract Traditionally, in combustion engine applications, metallic materials have been widely employed due to their properties: castability and machinability with accurate dimensional tolerances, good mechanical strength even at high temperatures, wear resistance, and affordable price. However, the high thermal conductivity of metallic materials is responsible for consistent losses of thermal energy and has a strong influence on pollutant emission. A possible approach for reducing the thermal exchange requires the use of thermal barrier coating (TBC) made by materials with low thermal conductivity and good thermo-mechanical strength. In this work, the effects of a ceramic coating for thermal insulation of the piston crown of a car diesel engine are investigated through a numerical methodology based on finite element analysis. The study is developed by considering firstly a thermal analysis and then a thermo-structural analysis of the component.
Journal Article

Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Thermoplastics with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

Abstract The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure plastics with 39 bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Fuel types included multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The plastics included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels.