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Journal Article

Influence of Intelligent Active Suspension System Controller Design Techniques on Vehicle Braking Characteristics

Abstract This article presents a comprehensive investigation for the interaction between vehicle ride vibration control and braking control using two degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter vehicle model. A typical limited bandwidth active suspension system with nonlinear spring and damping characteristics of practical hydraulic and pneumatic components is controlled to regulate both suspension and tire forces and therefore provide the optimum ride comfort and braking performance of an anti-lock brake system (ABS). In order to design a suitable controller for this nonlinear integrated system, various control techniques are followed including state feedback tuned using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), state feedback tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integrated (PI) tuned genetically, and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The ABS control system is designed to limit skid ratio below threshold of 15%.
Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Finding Diverse Failure Scenarios in Autonomous Systems Using Adaptive Stress Testing

Abstract Identifying and eliminating failure scenarios is critical in the development of autonomous vehicle (AV) systems. However, finding such failures through real-world vehicle-level testing is a difficult task as system disengagements and accidents are rare occurrences. Simulation approaches have been proposed to supplement vehicle-level testing and reduce the costs associated with operating large fleets of autonomous test vehicles. While one can run more vehicles in simulation than in the real world, applying traditional Monte Carlo sampling techniques to find failures still yields an unguided search and a large waste of computing resources. A more directed method than random sampling is needed to identify failure scenarios in a computationally efficient manner. Adaptive Stress Testing (AST) is a method that uses reinforcement learning (RL) paradigms to efficiently find failure scenarios in stochastic sequential decision-making systems.
Journal Article

Enhancement of Automotive Penetration Testing with Threat Analyses Results

Abstract In this work, we present an approach to support penetration tests by combining safety and security analyses to enhance automotive security testing. Our approach includes a new way to combine safety and threat analyses to derive possible test cases. We reuse outcomes of a performed safety analysis as the input for a threat analysis. We show systematically how to derive test cases, and we present the applicability of our approach by deriving and performing test cases for a penetration test of an automotive electronic control unit (ECU). Therefore, we selected an airbag control unit due to its safety-critical functionality. During the penetration test, the selected control unit was installed on a test bench, and we were able to successfully exploit a discovered vulnerability, causing the detonation of airbags.
Journal Article

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

Abstract Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code.
Journal Article

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Subsystem

Abstract Aircraft subsystem development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight-worthy system. The subsystem needs to be verified for a massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as part of the environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of subsystems with various kinds of power disturbances and to determine the ability of a subsystem to withstand PQ disturbances. The subsystem being designed should be reliable enough to handle PQ anomalies. A PQ test results in an enormous amount of data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test and can be identified as big data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as part of post-processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and that the functional performance of the subsystem is met.
Journal Article

Understanding the Impact of Standardized SAE Waveform Parameter Variation on Artificial Lightning Plasma, Specimen Loading, and Composite Material Damage

Abstract Previous works have established strategies to model artificial test lightning plasma with specific waveform parameters and use the predicted plasma behavior to estimate test specimen damage. To date no computational works have quantified the influence of varying the waveform parameters on the predicted plasma behavior and resulting specimen damage. Herein test standard Waveform B has been modelled and the waveform parameters of “waveform peak,” “rise time,” and “time to reach the post-peak value” have been varied. The plasma and specimen behaviors have been modelled using the Finite Element (FE) method (a Magnetohydrodynamic FE multiphysics model for the plasma, a FE thermal-electric model for the specimen). For the test arrangements modelled herein, it has been found that “peak current” is the key parameter influencing plasma properties and specimen damage.
Journal Article

Technological Stability of the Liner in a Separable Metal Composite Pressure Vessel

Abstract The article considers one of the possible mechanisms of loading the solidity of a cylindrical metal composite high-pressure vessel (MC HPV). This mechanism manifests itself as delamination of a thin-walled metal shell (liner) from a more rigid composite shell causing local buckling. A similar effect can be detected in the manufacturing process of MC HPV, when the composite shell is formed by winding with tension a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic tape on the liner. Pressure transfer from the composite shell to the liner is carried out by the method of temperature analogy, that is, by cooling the composite shell, thermally insulated from the liner. To solve the problem of externally confined liner local buckling an approach is proposed, which is based on three points: the introduction of local technological deviations inherent in actual structures, the determination of the general stress-strain state, and a real-time deforming.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a Hybrid Fuzzy-Reinforcement Learning Algorithm for Driver Drowsiness Detection Using a Driving Simulator

Abstract Driver drowsiness is the cause of many fatal accidents all over the world. Many research works have been conducted on detecting driver drowsiness for more than half a century, but statistical data show that such accidents have not decreased significantly. Most researchers have focused on using certain sensors and extracting their relevant features. However, there has been no research work on developing an algorithm to detect driver drowsiness independently from the input type. In this paper, a hybrid fuzzy-reinforcement learning drowsiness detection algorithm is presented. This algorithm is flexible to work with any number and any kind of data related to driver alertness. It estimates the level of alertness based on an arbitrary number of inputs. The algorithm extracts driving patterns specific to each driver and determines driver’s level of drowsiness using a continuous numerical variable rather than a discrete variable.
Journal Article

Correlation Model of Subjective and Objective Evaluation Based on Grey GM(0,N) for Automobile Sound Quality

Abstract Correlation analysis of subjective and objective evaluation for automobile sound quality is an important topic in automobile technology fields. In view of the deficiency of multi-dimensional linear regression analysis and the theoretical merits of grey system method, grey comprehensive relational degree was calculated to analyze the contribution of objective evaluation data to subjective evaluation. The main objective variables affecting the subjective feeling were determined. The variables include loudness, sharpness and shaking degrees. Grey GM(0,4) model was established as a quantitative expression for describing the subjective and objective evaluation correlation. The results of residual test and posterior-variance-test show that the established model was accurate and the model can be used to analyze and predict subjective and objective evaluation data of automobile sound quality.
Journal Article

Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

Abstract An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fatigue Life of Wheels in Commercial Vehicles

Abstract In India, vehicle population increases every day along with road accidents by 2.5% every year. About 7.7% of accidents are caused by wheel separation, 60% of which are due to nut-related problems. Wheel separations in vehicles occur due to fastener issues and fatigue failures in bolts. A study of the reasons for and mechanisms of nut loosening showed that left-hand side wheels detached and fracture failure occurred in right-hand side studs. Fatigue life of wheels with Nord-Lock washer and without washer is determined by using numerical analysis as per the IS 9438 cornering fatigue test. These numerical results are compared with experimental results.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Blast Protection Improvement of an Armored Vehicle Cab by Composite Armors and Anti-Shock Seats

Abstract The objective of this article is to evaluate the effects of different blast protective modules to military vehicle structures and occupants. The dynamic responses of the V-shape integral basic armor, the add-on honeycomb sandwich structure module, and the anti-shock seat-dummy system were simulated and analyzed. The improvements of occupant survivability by different protective modules were compared using occupant injury criteria. The integral armored cab can maintain the integrity of the cab body structure. The add-on honeycomb sandwich armor reduces the peak structural deformation and velocity of the cab floor by 34.9% and 47.4%, respectively, compared with the cab with integral armors only. The integral armored cab with the anti-shock seat or the honeycomb sandwich structures reduces the occupant shock responses below the injury criteria. For different blast threat intensities, the selection of appropriate protective modules can meet protection requirements.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

An Investigation of a Locomotive Structural Crashworthiness Using Finite Element Simulation

Abstract In this article, the crashworthiness of a locomotive is assessed through finite element analysis (FEA). The present investigation is focused on the analysis of a locomotive with driving cab to improve the modeling approach and exploring the intrinsic structural weaknesses to improve its crashworthiness. The analyses are conducted according to the EN 15227 standard, which provide crashworthiness requirements for locomotive structure. The finite element model is validated in terms of acceleration and energy balance by the experimental results. The validated model is further used to assess the crashworthiness behavior at a higher impact speed, that is, 100, 160, and 225 km/hr. It has been noticed that local buckling occurs at different points, which reduces the desired progressive damage behavior in the locomotive. The results indicate that at higher speed, large plastic deformation occurs in the frontal part of the locomotive.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Application of Multi-Attribute Weighted Gray Target Decision in Automobile Noise Reduction Scheme Evaluation

Abstract In the selection of automobile noise reduction schemes, the lack of comprehensive quantitative index system and objective evaluation method is a serious problem. In this article, the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and gray target decision were used to solve the problem. Firstly, AHP and gray target decision method were introduced respectively in detail. Secondly, three automobile noise reduction schemes were illustrated. Four types of data were selected as the decision indexes, and the weight coefficients of all the decision indexes were calculated using the AHP. Then multi-attribute mixed weighted gray target decision model was established. The optimum scheme was obtained by the calculation of the off-target distance and the sorting of the calculation results. The proposed method can quantify the evaluation process and overcome the disadvantages of the traditional analogy method. The example shows that the method is feasible.
Journal Article

Material Selection and Structural Optimization for Lightweight Truck Trailer Design

Abstract This article investigates options for lightweighting truck trailers through a combination of material selection and structural optimization. Critical chassis design load cases were established, and a parametric finite element (FE) model of a typical European-style 13.5 m long truck trailer built from steel I-beams was developed. The model has been used to show that existing longitudinal steel I-beams could be reduced in weight by 28% (140 kg) through shape optimization alone. The model was expanded to analyze holistic composite trailer structures. It showed that up to 67% (1,326 kg) of weight could be saved by executing shape and material optimization in unison. The approach highlights that design through parametric analysis allows for many different structural configurations to be assessed in terms of both mechanical performance and material cost.
Journal Article

Analysis of Temperature Swing Thermal Insulation for Performance Improvement of Diesel Engines

Abstract Insulating combustion chamber surfaces with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provides thermal efficiency improvement when done appropriately. This article reports on insulation heat transfer, engine performance characteristics, and damage modelling of “temperature swing” TBCs. “Temperature swing” insulation refers to the insulation material applied on surfaces of combustion chamber walls that enables selective manipulation of its surface temperature profile over the four strokes of an engine cycle. A combined GT Suite-ANSYS Fluent simulation methodology is developed to investigate the impact of thermal properties and insulation thickness for a variety of TBC materials for its “temperature swing” characteristics. This one-dimensional transient heat conduction analyses and engine cycle simulations are performed using scaled-down thermal properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia.
Journal Article

Finite Element Thermo-Structural Methodology for Investigating Diesel Engine Pistons with Thermal Barrier Coating

Abstract Traditionally, in combustion engine applications, metallic materials have been widely employed due to their properties: castability and machinability with accurate dimensional tolerances, good mechanical strength even at high temperatures, wear resistance, and affordable price. However, the high thermal conductivity of metallic materials is responsible for consistent losses of thermal energy and has a strong influence on pollutant emission. A possible approach for reducing the thermal exchange requires the use of thermal barrier coating (TBC) made by materials with low thermal conductivity and good thermo-mechanical strength. In this work, the effects of a ceramic coating for thermal insulation of the piston crown of a car diesel engine are investigated through a numerical methodology based on finite element analysis. The study is developed by considering firstly a thermal analysis and then a thermo-structural analysis of the component.