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Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Development of a New Neutral Coasting Control Utilizing ADAS and GPS

Abstract It has been discussed in numerous prior studies that in-neutral coasting, or sailing, can accomplish considerable amount of fuel saving when properly used. The driving maneuver basically makes the vehicle sail in neutral gear when propulsion is unnecessary. By disengaging a clutch or shifting the gear to neutral, the vehicle may better utilize its kinetic energy by avoiding dragging from the engine side. This strategy has been carried over to series production recently in some of the vehicles on the market and has become one of the eco-mode features available in current vehicles. However, the duration of coasting must be long enough to attain more fuel economy benefit than deceleration fuel cutoff (DFCO)-which exists in all current vehicle powertrain controllers-can bring. Also, the transients during shifting back to drive gear can result in a drivability concern.
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

Toward Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy with ADAS

Abstract Modern vehicles have incorporated numerous safety-focused advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) in the last decade including smart cruise control and object avoidance. In this article, we aim to go beyond using ADAS for safety and propose to use ADAS technology to enable predictive optimal energy management and improve vehicle fuel economy (FE). We combine ADAS sensor data with a previously developed prediction model, dynamic programming (DP) optimal energy management control, and a validated model of a 2010 Toyota Prius to explore FE. First, a unique ADAS detection scope is defined based on optimal vehicle control prediction aspects demonstrated to be relevant from the literature. Next, during real-world city and highway drive cycles in Denver, Colorado, a camera is used to record video footage of the vehicle environment and define ADAS detection ground truth. Then, various ADAS algorithms are combined, modified, and compared to the ground truth results.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Optimization of Vehicle Speed and Inter-Vehicle Distance in an Automated Highway Car Platoon to Minimize Fuel Consumption

Abstract The development of the technology of automated highways promises the opportunity for the vehicles to travel safely at a closer distance concerning each other. As such, vehicles moving in the wake of others experience a reduction in fuel consumption. This article investigates the effect of longitudinal distance between two passenger cars on drag coefficients numerically and experimentally. For the numerical analysis, the fluid flow at car speeds of 70, 90 and 110 km/h were examined. The Artificial Intelligence coding was applied to train an Artificial Neural Network to extend the calculated data. The optimum values for the inter-vehicle distance and the vehicle speed to assure the least drag coefficient are obtained. To support the numerical results an instrument designed and built particularly to accurately measure the fuel consumption was installed on a midsize sedan car and some field tests were carried out.
Journal Article

High Power-Density, High Efficiency, Mechanically Assisted, Turbocharged Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Abstract More than a decade ago, we proposed combined use of direct injection (DI) and jet ignition (JI) to produce high efficiency, high power-density, positive-ignition (PI), lean burn stratified, internal combustion engines (ICEs). Adopting this concept, the latest FIA F1 engines, which are electrically assisted, turbocharged, directly injected, jet ignited, gasoline engines and work lean stratified in a highly boosted environment, have delivered peak power fuel conversion efficiencies well above 46%, with specific power densities more than 340 kW/liter. The concept, further evolved, is here presented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. Results of simulations for a new DI JI ICE with rotary valve, being super-turbocharged and having gasoline or methanol as working fuel, show the opportunity to achieve even larger power densities, up to 430 kW/liter, while delivering a near-constant torque and, consequently, a nearly linear power curve over a wide range of speeds.
Journal Article

Improving the Modelling of Dissociating Hydrogen Nozzles

Abstract While the design of nozzles for diatomic gases is very well established and covered by published works, the case of a diatomic gas dissociating to monatomic along a nozzle is a novel subject that needs a proper mathematical description. These novel studies are relevant to the definition of nozzles for gas-core Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) that are receiving increased attention for the potential advantages they may deliver versus current generation rockets. The article thus reviews the design of the nozzles of gas-core NTR that use hydrogen as the propellant. Propellant temperatures are expected to reach 9,000-15,000 K. Above 1500 K, hydrogen begins to dissociate at low pressures, and around 3000 K dissociation also occurs at high pressures. At a given temperature, the lower the gas pressure the more molecules dissociate, and H2 → H + H. The properties of the gas are a function of the mass fractions of diatomic and monatomic hydrogen x H2 and x H = 1 − x H2.
Journal Article

Adaptive Transmission Shift Strategy Based on Online Characterization of Driver Aggressiveness

Abstract Commercial vehicles contribute to the majority of freight transportation in the United States. They are also significant fuel consumers, with over 23% of fuel used in transportation in the United States. The gas price volatility and increasingly stringent regulation on greenhouse-gas emissions have driven manufacturers to adopt new fuel-efficient technologies. Among others, an advanced transmission control strategy, which can provide tangible improvement with low incremental cost. In the commercial sector, individual drivers have little or no interest in vehicle fuel economy, contrary to fleet owners. Aggressive driving behavior can greatly increase the real-world vehicle fuel consumption. However, the effectiveness of transmission calibration to match the shift strategy to the driving characteristics is still a challenge.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Onboard Natural Gas Reforming for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Abstract Powertrain simulations and catalyst studies showed the efficiency credits and feasibility of onboard reforming as a way to recover waste heat from heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) fueled by natural gas (NG). Onboard reforming involves 1) injecting NG into the exhaust gas recycle (EGR) loop of the HDV, 2) reforming NG on a catalyst in the EGR loop to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and 3) combusting the reformed fuel in the engine. The reformed fuel has increased heating value (4-10% higher LHV) and flame speed over NG, allowing stable flames in spark ignition (SI) engines at EGR levels up to 25-30%. A sulfur-tolerant reforming catalyst was shown to reform a significant amount of NG (15-30% conversion) using amounts of precious metal near the current practice for HDV emissions control (10 g rhodium). Engine simulations showed that the high EGR levels enabled by onboard reforming are used most effectively to control engine load instead of waste-gating or throttling.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

Abstract Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests are used to assess the sensitivity of rolling resistance and weight to the vehicle fuel economy.
Journal Article

Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

Abstract When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works.
Journal Article

Implementation and Optimization of a Variable-Speed Coolant Pump in a Powertrain Cooling System

Abstract This study investigates methods to precisely control a coolant pump in an internal combustion engine. The goal of this research is to minimize power consumption while still meeting optimal performance, reliability and durability requirements for an engine at all engine-operating conditions. This investigation achieves reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and improved powertrain performance. Secondary impacts include cleaner air for the earth, reduced operating costs for the owner, and compliance with US regulatory requirements. The study utilizes mathematical modeling of the cooling system using heat transfer, pump laws, and boiling analysis to set limits to the cooling system and predict performance changes.
Journal Article

LSPI Durability, a Study of LSPI over the Life of a Vehicle

Abstract Increasingly stringent emissions standards and the related efforts to increase vehicle fuel economy have forced the development and implementation of many new technologies. In the light-duty, passenger vehicle segment, one key strategy has been downsized, down-sped, boosted engines. Gasoline direct injection, coupled with turbocharging, have allowed for a drastic reduction in engine size while maintaining or improving engine performance. However, obtaining more power from a smaller engine has produced some consequences. One major consequence is the uncontrolled combustion known as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI and the high energy knocking event which frequently follows have been known to result in fractured pistons and catastrophic engine failure. The propensity at which LSPI occurs has been linked to engine oil formulation.
Journal Article

Knock Phenomena under Very Lean Conditions in Gasoline Powered SI-Engines

Abstract Homogeneous lean operation is a well-known strategy for enhancing the thermal efficiency of SI-engines. At higher load points the efficiency is often compromised by the need to suppress knock. Experiments were performed to determine the knock characteristics of SI engines using homogeneous lean operation at λ values of up to 1.8 with various hardware configurations that are commonly used to increase the lean limit. Changing λ altered the eigenfrequencies of the combustion chamber and the highest energy excitation mode. Increasing λ from 1.0 to 1.2 increased the knock tendency and led to an earlier knock onset. However, further increases in λ significantly reduced the knock tendency and retarded the knock onset. The knock signal energy increased for higher λ values and constant knock tendencies. The differences in knock characteristics between the various λ values became more pronounced upon raising the intake temperature from 40 °C to 90 °C.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Engine Operating Parameters on a Rankine Based Waste Heat Recovery System in a SI Engine

Abstract One of the most promising techniques to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of future combustion engines is the use of waste heat from exhaust gas with a Rankine cycle. The target of this study was to investigate the influence of engine operating parameters such as ignition timing, coolant temperature and injection parameters on the efficiency and performance of Rankine based waste heat recovery systems (WHR). This was done to gain basic knowledge about the influences of the engine operating parameters which helps to explain the system behavior under different operating conditions and second to identify the operating parameters with the highest overall system efficiency which can be used to highlight the impact of changes in engine application on the car. These first of a kind tests were performed on a state-of-the-art gasoline engine equipped with a prototype Rankine-system.
Journal Article

A Novel Approach towards Stable and Low Emission Stratified Lean Combustion Employing Two Solenoid Multi-Hole Direct Injectors

Abstract Stratified lean combustion has proven to be a promising approach for further increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline direct injection engines in low load conditions. In this work, a new injection strategy for stratified operation mode is introduced. A side and a central-mounted solenoid multi-hole injector are simultaneously operated in a single-cylinder engine. Thermodynamic investigations show that this concept leads to improved stability, faster combustion, reduced particle number emissions, and lower fuel consumption levels compared to using only one injector. Experiments at an optical engine and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations explain the improvements by a more compact mixture and reduced piston wetting with two injectors. Finally, the application of external EGR in combination with the above concept allows NOx emissions to be effectively kept at a low level while maintaining a stable operation.
Journal Article

Fast-Running Autoignition Model for Diesel Combustion Modeling and Control, Based on Detailed Reaction Kinetics Simulation

Abstract Detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms have been proposed for description of the complex chemistry of autoignition processes of n-heptane, as a representative diesel fuel. These kinetic models are attractive for a detailed 3-D CFD or multi-zone simulation, however the simulation time is normally not affordable for phenomenological engine process modeling. For phenomenological combustion models, typically single-to multiple-step Arrhenius equations are used to model the autoignition processes. Based on the number of Arrhenius equations and model structure the low-temperature, high-temperature and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior can be modeled. For diesel engine simulation modeling the ignition delay using Arrhenius equation(s) and a Livengood-Wu integration can deliver fairly good results, depending on the number of equations and calibration of constant parameters.
Journal Article

The Effect of Inlet Valve Timing and Engine Speed on Dual Fuel NG-Diesel Combustion in a Large Bore Engine

Abstract High load (18 bar IMEP) dual fuel combustion of a premixed natural gas/air charge ignited by directly injected diesel fuel was studied in a large bore gas engine. A nozzle design with low flow rate was installed to inject a small diesel volume (10.4 mm3) equal an energetic amount of about two percent. The effect of compression end temperature on ignition and combustion was investigated using valve timings with early IVC (Miller) and maximum charging efficiency (MaxCC). Furthermore, the engine speed was reduced (1500 rpm to 1000 rpm) for the Miller valve timing to analyze the impact of the chemical time scale on the combustion process. During all experiments, the cylinder charge density was kept constant adjusting the intake pressure and the resulting air mass flow.