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Technical Paper

Development of CAE Methodology for Rollover Sensing Algorithm

2009-04-20
2009-01-0828
The Rollover CAE model is developed for Rollover sensing algorithm in this paper. By using suggested CAE model, it is possible to make sensing data of rollover test matrix and these data can be used for calibration of rollover sensing algorithm. Developed vehicle model consists of three parts: a vehicle parts, an occupant parts and a ground boundary conditions. The vehicle parts include detailed suspension model and FE structure model. The occupant parts include ATD (anthropomorphic test device) male dummy and restraint systems: Curtain Airbag and Seat-Belt. We find analytical value of the suspension model through correlation with vehicle drop test, simulate this model under the conditions of untripped (Embankment, Corkscrew) and tripped (Curb-Trip, Soil-Trip) rollover scenarios. Comparison of the simulation and experimental data shows that the simulation results of suggested CAE model can be substituted for the experimental ones in calibration of rollover sensing algorithm.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Variable Fuel Properties in High-Pressure Diesel Injectors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0832
High pressurization of Diesel fuel in modern common-rail injectors, in addition to its effect on spray atomization, can result to increase of fuel density and viscosity in comparison to atmospheric conditions; moreover, due to the sharp de-pressurization experienced by the fuel at the inlet of the injection holes significant gradients of the above properties are established. Consequently, the characteristics of cavitation taking place at the entrance to the injection holes are affected. The present study quantifies the role of these effects in automotive Diesel injectors operating at pressures in excess of 1500 bar through use of a cavitation CFD model. The flow solver is accordingly modified to account for such effects during the solution of the conservation equations. Two different injector designs have been considered, both based on the same sac-type nozzle body; one with sharp-inlet cylindrical holes and one with tapered holes with inlet rounding.
Journal Article

Compressive Neck Injury and its Relationship to Head Contact and Torso Motion during Vehicle Rollovers

2009-04-20
2009-01-0829
Previous literature has shown that serious neck injury can occur during rollover events, even for restrained occupants, when the occupant's head contacts the vehicle interior during a roof-to-ground impact or contacts the ground directly through an adjacent window opening. Confusion about the mechanism of these injuries can result when the event is viewed from an accelerated reference frame such as an onboard camera. Researchers generally agree that the neck is stressed as a result of relative motion between head and torso but disagree as to the origin of the neck loading. This paper reviews the principles underlying the analysis of rollover impacts to establish a physical basis for understanding the source of disagreement and demonstrates the usefulness of physical testing to illustrate occupant impact dynamics. A series of rollover impacts has been performed using the Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) with both production vehicles and vehicles with modified roof structures.
Journal Article

Accuracy of Selected 2008 Chrysler Airbag Control Module Event Data Recorders

2009-04-20
2009-01-0877
This paper reports test results for accuracy of pre-crash speed, brake, and accelerator pedal data recorded in selected 2008 model year Chrysler ACM EDR’s under steady state speed conditions. The authors drove two test vehicles at two different speeds, 56 and 113 km/h (35 and 70 mph), and artificially created EDR events so pre-crash events would be stored. The authors collected ACM EDR data after each run. A differential Global Positioning System (GPS) based Racelogic VBOX III (100Hz) was used to measure vehicle speed and record brake on/off and accelerator pedal voltage real time. Maximum error, average error, and 98% confidence intervals are reported for EDR to VBOX. Accelerator pedal position accuracy and brake on/off reporting latency versus auxiliary sensor taps are documented.
Journal Article

A Statistical Analysis of Data from Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2009-04-20
2009-01-0880
The most common trigger for event data collection in Heavy Vehicle1 ECMs is a sudden decrease in the calculated vehicle speed. The calculated vehicle speed is a by-product of programmed calibrations and measured wheel speed data. In some cases, as is the case with Detroit Diesel ECMs, event data are recorded when the vehicle transitions from a driving state to a stopped state. Event data are reported with respect to time when the calculated vehicle speed change exceeds the preset threshold value or the first recorded 0 mph value. Because the data are not necessarily centered on the collision event itself, determination of impact speed and analysis of driver response can be problematic. A statistical evaluation of crash and non-crash related Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) reports was conducted to identify specific measurable characteristics that can be used to identify the time of impact within reported event data.
Technical Paper

Filtration Technology Challenges for Common-Rail Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0874
The focus of this study was to determine the role of liquid filtration in controlling debris in fuel and maintaining common-rail fuel system life for off-highway diesel engine applications. Three key areas of filtration design surfaced as most important areas of focus – basic filtration efficiency, robustness of filter manufacturing, and filter assembly cleanliness from production (before and during installation into fuel system). The study also revealed the importance of designing fuel filtration systems consisting of primary filtration (suction-side water separation and particulate filtration) combined with pressure-side particulate filtration. The performance characteristics of the filtration system as a whole were found to be extremely critical in optimum fuel system performance and life goals, especially in severe-duty applications.
Journal Article

Accuracy of Selected 2008 Ford Restraint Control Module Event Data Recorders

2009-04-20
2009-01-0884
The paper reports test results for accuracy of pre-crash speed, brake, and accelerator pedal position data recorded in a new family of Ford RCM EDR’s under steady state conditions. The authors drove 2 test vehicles at 3 different speeds from 48 to 113 km/h (30 to 70 mph), and artificially created EDR events so pre-crash data would be stored. The authors collected RCM data and PCM data. A GPS based Racelogic VBOX was used to measure speed and record CAN bus information real time. Maximum error, average error, and 98% confidence intervals are reported for RCM to VBOX and PCM to VBOX. Accelerator pedal position accuracy and brake on/off reporting latency of the RCM to CAN bus data and/or auxiliary brake switches are documented.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

Lean Engineering Center

2009-04-20
2009-01-0889
Rybnik Engineering Center (REC) is the new R&D center developed by Tenneco in Poland. One of the key ideas behind the REC is to develop it based on the lean engineering principles. In a first step a white paper was established and agreed upon with senior management. This white paper consisted of: a vision a set of objectives derived from this vision and a road map to reach this vision The creation of REC has been articulated around 3 major themes: 1. PERSONNEL - It is about how to identify and hire people that will fit into our lean culture. A further challenge is to then train and mentor the people. A similar model known as the inverse-T at Toyota was implemented. Lastly, a network of partners has been established and integrated in the Tenneco development processes. 2. PROCESSES - Both engineering and cross functional processes have been systematically reviewed or new ones developed.
Journal Article

Diesel Fuel/Water Separation Test Methods—Where We Are and Where We Are Going

2009-04-20
2009-01-0875
With the automotive industry using high-pressure common rail fuel systems to meet current and future emissions requirements, water removal is even more critical to extend the life of these fuel systems. To meet this challenge, the automotive industry is attempting to improve the current water removal test methods. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Technical Specification (TS) 16332 [1] and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1488 [2] are the two major standardized test methods used by the automotive industry at this time. ISO/TS 16332 is replacing ISO 4020 [3] and SAE J1488 is still the U.S. National test method. ISO/TS 16322 is still being developed at the time of the writing. The SAE Filter Test Methods Committee (FTMC) is incorporating improved methodologies to SAE J1488 to improve our National test method and meet the automotive industry's needs. This paper will discuss only the SAE FTMC action items and results.
Journal Article

Characterization of Zirconium Oxide-Based Pretreatment Coatings Part 2 – Challenges in Coating Aluminum Body Panels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0892
The pretreatment of aluminum sheet material in preparation for further paint application can be challenging due to the presence of a thick oxide layer. The composition of the oxide layer is primarily aluminum oxide, but it may also contain magnesium that is typically dispersed unevenly throughout the oxide layer. Zinc-phosphate systems remove much of the oxide layer on aluminum, but questions remain on the extent of removal of the oxide layer by zirconium oxide-based pretreatments and how these oxide layers may affect the zirconium oxide-based pretreatment deposition on aluminum. Several methods have been used to characterize the coating of zirconium oxide-based pretreatments on aluminum. Scanning electron microscopy at very high magnification reveals a coating on aluminum that is significantly different in morphology than the same coating chemistry on steel substrates.
Journal Article

Followers in the Transportation Industry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0888
This paper compares the follower profiles of transportation industry personnel with other industry groups, principally engineers and DOD personnel. In compiling the comparison, Chaleff’s courageous follower behaviors are used to identify the profiles and identify similarities and diversities. In addition, the paper reports on comparative analysis for follower behaviors, locus of control and the Big Five personality factors from a pilot study.
Journal Article

Characterization of Zirconium Oxide-Based Pretreatment Coatings Part 1 - Variability in Coating Deposition on Different Metal Substrates

2009-04-20
2009-01-0890
One of the key coating layers that inhibits corrosion on modern automobiles is the pretreatment film. This layer, which is typically a tri-cationic zinc phosphate material, provides both corrosion protection and enhanced paint adhesion to the base metal. Recent tightening of environmental regulations has made the use of this coating more difficult. In response to these pressures, pretreatment suppliers have been developing a new generation of metal pretreatments based on zirconium oxide. Characterization of these new materials is challenging as the zirconium oxide-based coatings are over ten times thinner than the current zinc phosphate coatings. Methods that are currently employed for studying zinc phosphate films such as coating weight determination by weighing, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) are not sensitive enough to fully characterize these materials.
Technical Paper

Test Results: Ford PCM Downloads Compared to Instrumented Vehicle Response in High Slip Angle Turning and other Dynamic Maneuvers

2009-04-20
2009-01-0882
An instrumented 2005 Ford Explorer was used to evaluate speed data provided from its Powertrain Control Module (PCM) at high slip angles. PCM speed was compared to speed and slip angle collected from a calibrated Datron S-400 velocity sensor. In addition to speed, slip angle and other standard handling test measurements the vehicle brake switch and throttle were recorded so PCM data could be synchronized. After each test run the vehicle ignition was turned off and the PCM was downloaded using commercially available Bosch hardware and software. The principal maneuver was the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) sine-with-dwell test consisting of a 0.7 HZ sinusoidal steer with a 0.5 second dwell at the steer reversal peak. Runs were conducted with the vehicle’s Electronic Stability Control (ESC) disengaged so that the test vehicle would achieve large slip angles.
Journal Article

Data Sources and Analysis of a Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder – V-MAC III

2009-04-20
2009-01-0881
Heavy trucks can have the capability to record vehicle status and performance data. In many applications, this capability is intrinsic to the powerplant’s electronic controls. However little information has been published regarding Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data obtained from Mack trucks equipped with the V-MAC vehicle electronic control units. This study is focused on data from Mack trucks and the influence of wheel slip on the HVEDR-reported vehicle speed. Additionally, the influence of variables such as initial speed and loaded condition are discussed. A late model Class 8 Mack was instrumented with a calibrated data acquisition package (DAQ) and put through a series of tests so that the HVEDR data could be compared to the data collected by the DAQ.
Technical Paper

Customer Satisfaction and Competitiveness on the Market

2009-04-20
2009-01-0887
The term and concepts of customer satisfaction have been used by companies and organizations for many years, but have become especially important in the last 10 years. This is associated with increased competition between companies for the market share and the possibilities for increasing sales volume. Customer satisfaction relates to many different areas: design and manufacturing, service, insurance, military, repair, banking, medical, brokerage, food, chemical, pharmaceutical, telecommunications, as well as others. Customer satisfaction is an important, but inadequately developed, component of Quality System. Its importance is reflected more and more in requirements to a company’s quality system. These general requirements are seen in standards [1], [2], and guides. There are many publications which relate to this field [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]. But most publications describe customer satisfaction in a general way, and do not show the results of research work (methodology).
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Event Data Recorders in Japan

2009-04-20
2009-01-0883
To understand the performance of Event Data Recorder (EDR) for the improvement of accident reconstruction using reliable and accurate information, two types of crash test data are analyzed. The first type is the J-NCAP crash tests for understanding the EDR characteristics under fundamental crash conditions and the second type involves three crash tests reconstructing typical real-world accidents for grasping the EDR performance under more complex crash conditions than J-NCAP crash tests. Data obtained from EDRs are compared with data obtained from instrumented sensors and high-speed video cameras. The velocities determined from pre-crash data and the maximum change in velocity, delta-V, obtained from post-crash data are analyzed. EDR pre-crash data shows good accuracy. In J-NCAP testing, all differences between the EDR recording value and the laboratory test velocity were less than 4%. EDR post-crash data has more difference from instrumented sensor data.
Journal Article

Convective Heat Transfer Optimization of Automotive Brake Discs

2009-04-20
2009-01-0859
Under intensive braking, such as continuous down-hill braking, high temperatures could be generated in automotive brake disks. The heat dissipation and thermal performance of vented brake discs strongly depends on the aerodynamic characteristics of the air flow through the rotor passages and the geometry configurations of brake discs. In this paper, commercial software GAMBIT is used for geometrical modeling and automatic mesh generating for brake rotors. Then, a computational fluid dynamic package, FLUENT, is employed to simulate the turbulent motions of air flow through the vented discs. Through the numerical simulations, the design criteria regarding the heat transfer rate and air flow rate of the discs are predicted. To optimize the 2-D and 3-D geometrical configurations of the brake discs, commercial software iSIGHT is used to integrate the geometrical modeling with GAMBIT and numerical simulations based on CFD software FLUENT.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Cooling Characteristics of a Disk Brake on an Inertia Dynamometer, Using Combined Fluid Flow and Thermal Simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0861
For automotive disk brake systems, convective cooling from the rotor to surrounding airflow is an important phenomenon, impacting the rotor and friction material operating temperatures and thereby influencing friction behavior, brake pedal response, and long-term durability characteristics. Many different rotor geometries and vent patterns have been proposed in the industry, however most performance evaluation and design optimization is still done empirically through on-vehicle testing or by using a test bench such as a brake dynamometer. Existing simulations of rotor airflow performance typically do not consider the installed condition with caliper, splash shield, and knuckle [1,2], or do not combine airflow and heat transfer characteristics. This paper will present a simulation model of a disk brake assembly installed on an inertia brake dynamometer, using CFD modeling coupled with thermal loading and heat transfer analysis.
Technical Paper

Interferometric Techniques for Crank-Angle Resolved Measurements of Gas Spectra in Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0863
We discuss combustion gas spectra measured by interference spectrometers and their relevance for engine studies. First, we discuss infrared H2O thermal emission spectra from in-cylinder piston engine gases with a novel operation mode of a standard FTIR. Second, we discuss ultraviolet OH absorption spectra in an atmospheric-pressure flame using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) suitable for single-shot measurements of spectra from engines. We emphasize the unique ability of interference spectrometers to gather high-resolution spectra at high throughput and the associated value to the engine researcher.
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