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Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Calibration Methodology for Spark Advance Control Using Engine Cycle Simulation and Polynomial Regression Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4023
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems has led to increasingly complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has created dramatic increases in software development time and cost. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs and also to enable engineers to understand the complex relationship between the many controllable parameters and engine performance. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and regression analysis. The reliability of the proposed method was investigated by validating the regression model predictions with measured data.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0986
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

CPU Model-based Hardware/Software Co-design for Real-Time Embedded Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0776
This paper proposes a new development method for highly reliable real-time embedded control systems using a CPU model-based hardware/software co-simulation. We take an approach that allows the full simulation of the virtual mechanical control system including CPU and object code level software. In this paper, Renesas SH-2A microcontroller model was developed on CoMET™ platform from VaST Systems Technology. A ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) system and engine control system were chosen to prove this concept. The ETB (Electronic Throttle Body) model on Saber® simulator from Synopsys® or engine model on MATLAB®/Simulink® simulator from MathWorks can be simulated with the SH-2A model. To help the system design, debug and evaluation, we developed an integrated behavior analyzer, which can display CPU behavior graphically during the simulation without affecting the simulation result, such as task level CPU load, interrupt statistics, software variable transition chart, and so on.
Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-1010
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of High-resolution Exciting Source Identification System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1325
We have developed an excitation source identification system that can distinguish excitation sources on a sub-assembly level (around 30mm) for vehicle components by combining a measurement and a timing analysis. Therefore, noise and vibration problems can be solved at an early stage of development and the development period can be shortened. This system is composed of measurement, control, modeling, and excitation source identification parts. The measurement and the excitation source identification parts are the main topics of this paper. In the measurement part, multiple physical quantities can be measured in multi-channel (noise and vibration: 48ch, general purpose: 64ch), and these time data can be analyzed by using a high-resolution signal analysis (Instantaneous Frequency Analysis (IFA)) that we developed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Combined Battery System for Electric Vehicles with Battery Lifespan Enhancements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0448
We propose a combined battery system (CBS) for low cost electric vehicles (EVs) to enhance battery life. The EVs popularly called as Neighborhood Electric Vehicle or Low-Speed-Electric-Vehicle are spreading in developing countries. Conventionally the EVs batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call it as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to high battery cost and short lifespan of the ECs. In this study, we develop a CBS consisting of a combination of following two kinds of batteries: i) EC which is the main energy source for the EV, and ii) a battery having high power density also called as power cells (PC) which is more suitable to bear high charge-discharge currents. The key feature of the proposed system is to minimize the size of additional battery by using our high power lithium ion battery. We performed experiments to estimate EC life for several capacity values of the PC.
Technical Paper

Effects of Small Disturbances Caused by Changes of Surrounding Conditions on the Small Positive Pressure Control System of the CEEF

1999-07-12
1999-01-1985
The closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) has a small positive pressure control system consisting of rubber buffers and a mechanical subsystem. In the present study, effects of small temperature disturbances caused by changes of surrounding conditions on the pressure control system are investigated experimentally and in numerical simulations. Though solar radiation causes a pressure disturbance in the facility, choosing the proper diameter of ducts which connect the rubber buffers to the modules, the rubber buffers can follow fluctuations of low frequency, like daily atmospheric fluctuations and pressure changes caused by temperature control of the facility’s air conditioners, and can cut off those of high frequency due to changes of environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A New RISC Microcontroller with On-Chip FPU to Introduce Adaptive Control into Powertrain Management

1999-03-01
1999-01-0865
Gasoline engine control continues to become more sophisticated and so the amount of software has reached 10 to 20 times that of early control systems. By changing the embedded microcomputer from 8bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) to 32bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), processing performance has been improved 100 times. This paper evaluates quantitative performance of the RISC CPU having a FPU (Floating Point Processing Unit) and describes an example application to adaptive control.
Technical Paper

EMERALDS-OSEK: A Small Real-Time Operating System for Automotive Control and Monitoring

1999-03-01
1999-01-1102
Increasingly, microcontrollers are being used in automotive systems to handle sophisticated control and monitoring activities. As applications become more sophisticated, their design and development becomes complex, necessitating the use of an operating system to manage the complexity and provide an abstraction for improving portability of code. This paper presents EMERALDS-OSEK, an operating system we have designed and implemented based on OSEK/VDX, an open industry standard. We present some of the features and optimizations that make EMERALDS-OSEK appropriate for small, low-cost microcontrollers typically found in automotive applications. We also present measurements of operating system performance. We find EMERALDS-OSEK to be efficient, both in terms of processing overheads and memory usage. However, we also find some parts of the OSEK standard that may be improved, and present our ideas for such improvements.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hitachi Electric Vehicle Combined Battery System Lifespan in India

2018-04-03
2018-01-0447
We have developed a drive cycle (DC) to test Hitachi’s combined battery system (CBS) for electric vehicles (EVs) having battery lifespan enhancements. Conventionally EV batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call them as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to short lifespan of the ECs. CBS almost doubles the EC and thus overall battery system lifespan, as per the evaluation over a WLTP based method. We want to test the CBS under Indian conditions which has predominantly hot weather, and traffic jam scenarios. Battery deterioration and thus its lifespan is sensitive to traffic conditions and ambient temperature. Hence, it was needed to evaluate the CBS over an Indian DC and use 40°C as ambient temperature. However, it was difficult to carry out the tests since there is no standard Indian DC for small / light weight four wheelers.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

1997-07-01
972516
It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Parallel Executions on Multiple Virtual ECU Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0011
We have developed a cooperative simulation environment for multiple electronic control units (ECUs) including a parallel executions mechanism to improve the test efficiency of a system, which was designed with multiple ECUs for autonomous driving. And we have applied it to a power window system for multiple ECUs with a controller area network (CAN). The power window model consists of an electronic-mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different executions speed operates in parallel using a synchronization mechanism that exchanges data outputted from each simulator at a constant cycle. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed its control program step-by-step in binary code to test software for the product version. As co-simulation technology, a mechanism that synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and a model of an in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU were developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Predictive Powertrain State Switching Control for Eco-Saving ACC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0024
In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Technical Paper

Virtual FMEA and Its Application to Software Verification of Electric Power Steering System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0066
This paper presents the “Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (vFMEA)” system, which is a high-fidelity electrical-failure-simulation platform, and applies it to the software verification of an electric power steering (EPS) system. The vFMEA system enables engineers to dynamically inject a drift fault into a circuit model of the electronic control unit (ECU) of an EPS system, to analyze system-level failure effects, and to verify software-implemented safety mechanisms, which consequently reduces both cost and time of development. The vFMEA system can verify test cases that cannot be verified using an actual ECU and can improve test coverage as well. It consists of a cycle-accurate microcontroller model with mass-production software implemented in binary format, analog and digital circuit models, mechanical models, and a state-triggered fault-injection mechanism.
Journal Article

Automatic Curve Deceleration System Using Enhanced ACC with Navigation System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0922
We have developed a system for automatic deceleration upon entering curves to prevent collisions on tight curves on high-ways. The navigation system is used to determine safe speed negotiating the curve, defined as a speed that will keep lateral acceleration within a settled value. The navigation system sends the curve radius to a controller, which calculates the safe speed for the curve. The controller then sends the speed command to the ACC system, which adjusts the vehicle speed. One of the important features in this system is the estimation of the vehicle position, in terms of its distance from the curve entrance. Navigation systems have a certain amount of dispersion in positional accuracy. A front camera is used in our system to decrease this dispersion. This camera detects lane markers (white lines, raised pavement markers, etc.) using our line recognition technologies1).
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0532
We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Journal Article

Multi-Fidelity Total Integrated Simulation Technology for High Pressure Pump with Squeeze Film Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-1325
Automotive fuel can be efficiently combusted by injecting it into the cylinders at high pressure to atomize it to pass the regulations for exhaust gas and fuel economy. For this reason, automotive companies have developed direct injection engines, which can inject gasoline into the cylinders directly. Furthermore, the demand for lower-noise high pressure pumps is also increasing from the viewpoint of automotive comfort. Since the valve velocity and noise level will increase as the pressure in fuel pumps increases, noise problems need to be solved under the high pressure conditions. Accordingly, the valve motion should be predicted with high accuracy under operating conditions to evaluate the noise caused by valve impingement. In addition, the squeeze film effect phenomenon will occur in the physical fuel pumps affect the prediction of the noise level caused by valve impingement.
Technical Paper

Development of Breath-Alcohol-Detection System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1498
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1301
We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
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