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Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

An Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing Retard Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor for Reducing Cold Start HC

Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas is reduced by controlling the air-fuel ratio to the low HC range and retarding the ignition timing as much as possible until the engine stability reaches a certain deterioration level. Conventionally however, the target air-fuel ratio has been set at a richer range than the low HC range and the target ignition timing has been more advanced than the engine stability limit, in order to stabilize the engine for various disturbances. As a result, the HC concentration has not been minimized. To solve this problem, a new engine control has been developed. This control uses a crank angle sensor to simultaneously control the air-fuel ratio and the ignition timing so that the HC concentration can be minimized.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Characteristics of Continuously Variable Valve Event & Lift (VEL) System

A continuously variable valve event and lift (VEL) system, actuated by oscillating cams, can provide optimum lift and event angles matching the engine operating conditions, thereby improving fuel economy, exhaust emission performance and power output. The VEL system allows small lift and event angles even in the engine operating region where the required intake air volume is small and the influence of valvetrain friction is substantial, such as during idling. Therefore, the system can reduce friction to lower levels than conventional valvetrains, which works to improve fuel economy. On the other hand, a distinct feature of oscillating cams is that their sliding velocity is zero at the time of peak lift, which differs from the behavior of conventional rotating cams. For that reason, it is assumed that the friction and lubrication characteristics of oscillating cams may differ from those of conventional cams.
Technical Paper

Development of High-resolution Exciting Source Identification System

We have developed an excitation source identification system that can distinguish excitation sources on a sub-assembly level (around 30mm) for vehicle components by combining a measurement and a timing analysis. Therefore, noise and vibration problems can be solved at an early stage of development and the development period can be shortened. This system is composed of measurement, control, modeling, and excitation source identification parts. The measurement and the excitation source identification parts are the main topics of this paper. In the measurement part, multiple physical quantities can be measured in multi-channel (noise and vibration: 48ch, general purpose: 64ch), and these time data can be analyzed by using a high-resolution signal analysis (Instantaneous Frequency Analysis (IFA)) that we developed.
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of Predictive Powertrain State Switching Control for Eco-Saving ACC

In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Detecting Technology of Combustion Conditions Using the Ion-Current Sensor

In previous study, a method of combustion detection for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a crank angle sensor and a knock sensor has been estimated [1]. In addition, an ion-current sensor has been used as a countermeasure against abnormal combustion with downsizing and higher compression ratio engines. An ion-current sensor has been newly adopted in engine systems. In this study, detection performance of combustion conditions in HCCI and spark ignition (SI) using with the ion-current sensor was estimated. The purpose of this study was to confirm detectable combustion conditions using with the ion-current sensor, and to confirm a requirement of applied voltage for the ion-current sensor. A detection signal of the ion-current sensor was changed by combustion style (HCCI,SI). Experimental results showed a heat release rate increased with ion signals increasing approximately at the same time in HCCI and SI.
Journal Article

Multi-Fidelity Total Integrated Simulation Technology for High Pressure Pump with Squeeze Film Effect

Automotive fuel can be efficiently combusted by injecting it into the cylinders at high pressure to atomize it to pass the regulations for exhaust gas and fuel economy. For this reason, automotive companies have developed direct injection engines, which can inject gasoline into the cylinders directly. Furthermore, the demand for lower-noise high pressure pumps is also increasing from the viewpoint of automotive comfort. Since the valve velocity and noise level will increase as the pressure in fuel pumps increases, noise problems need to be solved under the high pressure conditions. Accordingly, the valve motion should be predicted with high accuracy under operating conditions to evaluate the noise caused by valve impingement. In addition, the squeeze film effect phenomenon will occur in the physical fuel pumps affect the prediction of the noise level caused by valve impingement.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Journal Article

An Application of the Particle Velocity Transfer Path Analysis to a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motor Sound

A pioneering approach to implement transfer path analysis (TPA) is proposed in this paper through applying it to an automobile. We propose to use particle velocity as a measure of TPA, in addition to using sound pressure as a conventional measure for TPA. These two quantities together will give a comprehensive and complete definition of sound. Although sound pressure is a scalar, while particle velocity is a vector, it is also proposed that the same technique of the conventional sound pressure TPA should be independently applicable to each component of particle velocity vector. This has been experimentally verified with a study on our test box system. In this paper, we apply the proposed TPA to an actual vehicle to examine its applicability, advantages and limitations. The driving motor sound of a hybrid electric vehicle is chosen as the case study. A tri-axial particle velocity sensor which also measures sound pressure at the same point is utilized in the experiment.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery Systems for Humans in a CELSS

The recovery of important minerals, salt (NaCI) and potassium (K), in a closed system, namely CELSS is discussed. NaCI is needed for humans, but is potentially harmful to plants. Salt is recovered after wet oxidation of urine. Since Na and K have similar chemical and physical properties, their recovery or separation may require sophisticated methods. Na, CI and K ions are separated from other ions by electrodialysis with univalent selective ion-exchange membranes and then NaCI is obtained separately by a crystalization process. Preliminary experiment on crystalization of NaCI-KCl mixed solutions showed a good separation result.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor Utilizing Ion Transportation in Zirconia Electrolyte

To detect an air-fuel ratio in wide range is very important to control the automotive engines with low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions. Although the application of zirconia electrolyte for this purpose has been proposed by the authors several years ago, there remained several problems due to the contamination of gas diffusion apertures which are exposed to the exhaust gas environment. Here the behavior of ions transported in zirconia electrolyte have been analyzed to optimize the structure and characteristics, and to guarantee the long life operation of sensor. Gas contents and their reactions in combustion process under the wide range air-fuel ratio have been analyzed, and these results were reflected to the analysis of ion transportation in zirconia electrolyte. Experimental results supported the analytical results, and they showed the possibilities of long life operation of zirconia air-fuel ratio sensor utilizing ion transportation phenomena.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation System for Analyzing Fuel Film Flow in Gasoline Engine

A new numerical simulation system has been developed which predicts flow behavior of fuel film formed on intake port and combustion chamber walls of gasoline engines. The system consists of a film flow model employing film thickness as a dependent variable, an air flow model, and a fuel spray model. The system can analyze fuel film flow formed on any arbitrary three-dimensional configuration. Fuel film flow formed under a condition of continuous intermittent fuel injection and steady-state air flow was calculated, and comparison with experimental data showed the system possessing ability of qualitative prediction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

The basic structure of a new engine control system for lean combustion is presented. A fuel atomizer is adopted to obtain a uniform mixture of fine fuel droplets, 40µm in diameter. A new air-fuel ratio sensor and an integrated control method for air flow are developed for precise and rapid response control of cylinder air-fuel ratios 8 to 26. Great improvements in both fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics are obtained by increasing the mean air-fuel ratio to 25 under cruising condition. There are made possible by the stable combustion provided by the fine mixture. This system provides the driver with quick vehicle response and good fuel economy, while ensuring smooth driveability.
Technical Paper

Development of a Highly Accurate Air-Fuel Ratio Control Method Based on Internal State Estimation

A fuel injection control method is developed in which the transient air-fuel ratio is accurately controlled by an internal state estimation method with dynamic characteristics. With conventional methods the air-fuel ratio control precision is limited, because the air measurement system, the air and the fuel dynamic characteristics lack precision. In this development, the factors disturbing the air-fuel ratio under transient conditions are determined by analysis of the control mechanisms. The disturbance factors are found to be (1) the hot wire sensor has a delay time, (2) manifold air charging causes an overshoot phenomenon, (3) there is a dead time between sensing and fuel flow into the cylinder and (4) there is a delay of fuel flow into the cylinder caused by the fuel film. Compensation schemes are constructed for each of these technical problems.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.