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Technical Paper

Evaluation of SAE 0W-20 GF-4 Prototype Formulation in Severe Taxi Fleet Service

This paper reviews the relative performance of prototype SAE 0W-20 and SAE 5W-20 ILSAC GF-4 [1, 2] mineral oils in severe taxi fleet service. Both oils contained the same additive technology, formulated to 0.05% mass Phosphorus. This level was targeted to gain field experience with oils formulated to meet proposed chemical limits for the ILSAC GF-4 specification [1, 2]. Though the limits in the final ILSAC GF-4 specification were increased to 0.08% mass Phosphorus, the 0.05% mass Phosphorus maximum is again proposed for the ILSAC GF-5 specification [3]. Used oil Chemical and Physical analysis was carried out at both interim and final drains (10,000 miles). Oil and fuel consumption were also monitored during the test. After a total mileage accumulation of 100,000 miles per vehicle, engine teardowns and physical ratings were performed on key engine components. It was concluded the performance of both lubricants was equivalent and acceptable.
Technical Paper

Development of New CNG-Gasoline (Bi-fuel) Lubricant, by Taxi Fleet Screening Test and Field Trial in Thailand

An internal combustion engine operating on compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel is usually under higher thermal stress compared to the same engine using gasoline fuel. This leads to various concerns on the operation of CNG engine and the performance of the lubricant, such increased wear, accelerated total base number depletion, and faster deterioration of the lubricant. Engine oil intended for compressed natural gas (CNG)-gasoline bi-fuel passenger car application must therefore be formulated to withstand the varied and often severe operating conditions, as well as maintain superior lubrication control and prolong engine life. PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed a new CNG-gasoline lubricant meeting API SN/GF-5 performance category that is able to address the various operating concerns of bi-fuel passenger car engines, and at the same time provides extended oil drain interval (ODI) capability.
Technical Paper

Development of Heavy Duty Diesel Real World Drive Cycles for Fuel Economy Measurements

Over several years, a fuel economy test measurement technique has been developed to highlight the magnitude of benefits expected in real world applications of different heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) engine oils in an operating vehicle. This method provides discriminatory results using an alternative to the widely used gravimetric fuel measurement methodology of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), in order to measure gains of <2% in a more repeatable manner. For the results to prove meaningful to the wider commercial audience, such as vehicle operators, original equipment manufacturers and oil providers, the systemic test vehicle operating conditions need to closely represent on-road conditions experienced on a daily basis by long haul, heavy duty diesel vehicles. This paper describes the parameters, necessary measures and methodologies required to record real world data and create representative proving ground test cycles.
Technical Paper

Understanding Lubricant Requirements of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

Innovation of Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles (HEV) has led to consumer demand for their fuel efficiency and emissions benefits among a growing segment of the population. An HEV is driven by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A distinguishing feature of the HEV is the ability to turn off the IC engine when the power available from the electrical system exceeds that required to propel the vehicle. This results in net cooler operating temperatures of the IC engine and more frequent starts of the engine. This research program was initiated to determine if the HEVs have any special lubrication requirements relative to those used in non-hybrid variety, and to look for opportunities to develop lubricant systems specifically tailored for such vehicles.
Journal Article

Challenging Conventional Wisdom by Utilizing Group II Base Oils in Fuel Efficient Axle Oils

Improving vehicle fuel economy is a major consideration for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their technology suppliers worldwide as government legislation increasingly limits carbon dioxide emissions. At the same time that automotive OEMs have been driving toward lower viscosity axle oils to improve fuel economy, OEMs have worked to improved durability over an extended drain interval. These challenges have driven the use of API group III and/or API group IV base oils in most factory fill axle oils. This paper details the development of a novel lower viscosity SAE 75W-85 axle technology based on group II base oil that rivals the performance of a PAO-based axle oil and challenges the conventional wisdom of not using group II base oils in fuel efficient axle oils.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Diblock Viscosity Modifier for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricants

An unprecedented global focus on the environment and greenhouse gases has driven recent government regulations on automotive emissions across the globe. To achieve this improvement, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have advocated a progressive move towards the use of low viscosity grade oils. However, the use of lower viscosity grades should not compromise engine durability or wear protection. Viscosity modifiers (VM) - polymeric additive components used to tailor the lubricant’s viscometric properties - have been viewed as a key enabler for achieving the desirable balance between fuel economy and engine durability performance. Self-assembling diblock copolymers represent a unique class of VMs, which deliver superior shear stability due to their tunable association/dissociation in the lubricating oil. Superior shear stability ensures that the oil viscosity and its ability to offer reliable engine protection from wear is retained over the life of the oil in the engine.
Journal Article

Extending SAE J300 to Viscosity Grades below SAE 20

The SAE Engine Oil Viscosity Classification (EOVC) Task Force has been gathering data in consideration of extending SAE J300 to include engine oils with high temperature, high shear rate (HTHS) viscosity below the current minimum of 2.6 mPa⋅s for the SAE 20 grade. The driving force for doing so is fuel economy, although it is widely recognized that hardware durability can suffer if HTHS viscosity is too low. Several Japanese OEMs have expressed interest in revising SAE J300 to allow official designation of an engine oil viscosity category with HTHS viscosity below 2.6 mPa⋅s to enable the development of ultra-low-friction engines in the future. This paper summarizes the work of the SAE EOVC Low Viscosity Grade Working Group comprising members from OEMs, oil companies, additive companies and instrument manufacturers to explore adoption of one or more new viscosity grades.
Journal Article

Demonstration of the Ability of a Novel Engine Oil to Remove Hydrocarbon Deposits in Two-Stroke Engines

In a two-stroke engine, carbon is a natural by-product of incomplete combustion. Fuel and oil quality vary leading to various degrees of carbon deposit build up on critical engine parts over time. If the carbon deposits are left on engine components and allowed to accumulate, it can lead to reduced horsepower, reduced fuel economy, increased emissions, and in the worst case the deposits can cause engine damage. A novel two-stroke engine oil was developed specifically to remove these deposits, restore the operating efficiency, and potentially lengthen the useful life of the two-stroke engine. In order to prove the restorative ability of this novel technology, dynamometer tests and field trials were conducted. In the dynamometer portion, the oil was tested in two of the standard TC-W3® certification tests for marine engine oils. The first was the OMC 40HP and the second was the OMC 70HP test.
Journal Article

Improving Fuel Efficiency of Motorcycle Oils

As the motorcycle market grows, the fuel efficiency of motorcycle oils is becoming an important issue due to concerns over the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment. Fuel efficient engine oils have been developed for passenger cars by moving to lower viscosity grades and formulating the additive package to reduce friction. Motorcycle oils, however, which operate in much higher temperature regimes, must also lubricate the transmission and the clutch, and provide gear protection. This makes their requirements fundamentally very different from passenger car oils. Developing fuel efficient motorcycle oils, therefore, can be a difficult challenge. Formulating to reduce friction may cause clutch slippage and reducing the viscosity grade in motorcycles must be done carefully due to the need for gear protection.
Technical Paper

Controlling Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Modern Automotive Equipment: Defining Approaches to and Methods for Analyzing Data in New Studies of Lubricant and Fuel-Related Effects (Part 2)

In recent years, an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has arisen from the downsizing of gasoline engines in order to improve fuel economy and comply with global CO2 legislation. The type and quality of the fuel and lubricant has been found to influence LSPI occurrence rates. A methodology for studying LSPI has been implemented, and a rigorous statistical approach for studying the data from a stationary engine test can provide consistent results as shown in Part 1 of the series. LSPI events can be determined by an iterative statistical procedure based on calculating the mean and standard deviation of peak pressure (PP) and crank angle location of 2% mass fraction burned (MFB02) data, determining cycles with parameters which exceeded n standard deviations from the mean and identifying outliers. Outliers for the PP and MFB02 metrics are identified as possible LSPI events.
Technical Paper

Advanced Power-Cylinder Tribology Using A Dynamically Loaded Piston Ring on Cylinder Bore Tribometer

It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress as modern engine technology continues to evolve. The conventional approach to investigating fundamental power-cylinder tribology employs bench-tests founded on assumptions which allow for simplification of experimental conditions.
Journal Article

Field and Bench Study of Shear Stability of Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants

Global environmental and economic concerns of today's world dictate strict requirements for modern heavy duty engines, especially in emissions, noise control, power generation, and extended oil drain intervals. These requirements lead to increased stresses imposed on lubricants in modern heavy duty engines. At the same time, the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) desire additional fuel economy from the lubricating oil, requiring the use of lower viscosity lubricants to minimize frictional losses in the engine. These lower viscosity oils are subjected to increased stresses in the engine and need to provide robust performance throughout their lifetime in order to protect engine parts from wear and damage. One of the most important lubricant qualities is to maintain viscosity throughout the drain interval and thus provide continuous engine protection.
Technical Paper

Additive Technology for Superior and Unique Motorcycle Oil (SUMO)

In a market survey conducted in 2010 on major South East Asian cities, motorcycle users identified some of the most valued oil features being clutch friction, durability and engine cleanliness. In the fast growing motorcycle markets of Asia where motorcycles are used mainly for daily transportation needs, there are enormous opportunities for motorcycle oils delivering differentiated attributes that provide superior reliability to the end users. It was with this market perspective that this new additive technology was developed. The additive technology was developed based on a unique set of components and formulation approach to meet the lubrication challenges of motorcycles, particularly its high shear and temperature conditions. In a forward-looking standpoint, the development was aligned to the current energy conservation and environmental trends in the personal mobility oil segment.
Technical Paper

Measuring Fuel Efficiency in Various Driving Cycles: How to Get Maximum Fuel Economy Improvement from the Lubricant

Increasing vehicle efficiency has been one of the key drivers of the automotive industry worldwide due to new government emission legislations and rising fuel costs. While original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are responding with innovative hardware designs for new models, lubricant companies are developing additive solutions to reduce frictional losses in the engine thereby increasing fuel economy of both new and existing vehicles. Fuel efficiency of the vehicle can be measured in a variety of driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), Japanese JC-08, and FTP-75 (Federal Test Procedure). The type of vehicle used in fuel economy evaluation in the same cycle plays a significant role. Fuel consumption rates for the same vehicle measured in these driving cycles vary due to the differences in the cycles. Thus, to assess the effect of the lubricant on fuel efficiency in various cycles, the fuel consumption is measured relative to a reference oil.
Technical Paper

Correlating Laboratory Oil Aerosol Coking Rig Tests to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger Compressor Coking

Deposit formation within turbocharger compressor housings can lead to compressor efficiency degradation. This loss of turbo efficiency may degrade fuel economy and increase CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in deposit formation, five different lubricants were run in a fired engine test while monitoring turbocharger compressor efficiency over time. Base stock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and back plate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.