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Technical Paper

Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm in the Complicated Road Condition for Automotive Millimeter-wave Radar

Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
Technical Paper

Control of Novel Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Automotive

With the electrification and intelligentialization of vehicle, requirements on more intelligent and integrated brake system are put forward. A novel integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill these requirements. I-EHB is consisted of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). The system characteristics of I-EHB are tested through test rig. According to characteristics experiments, friction and non-linear phenomena in hydraulic pressure control are found. In order to overcome these phenomena in control of I-EHB, chatter-compensation is adopted based on experiment analysis. Algorithm are tested and optimized through test rig. As a result, through chatter-compensation the hydraulic pressure is controlled accurately and chatter-compensation is optimized for different working conditions.
Technical Paper

Analyze Signal Processing Software for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar System by Using a Software Testbench Built by SystemVue

Millimeter-wave automotive radars can prevent traffic accidents and save human lives as they can detect vehicles and pedestrians even in night and in bad weather. Various types of automotive radars operating at 24 and 77 GHz bands are developed for various applications, like adaptive cruise control, blind-spot detection and lane change assistance. In each year, millions of millimeter-wave radar are sold worldwide. Millimeter-wave radar is composed of radar hardware and radar signal processing software, which detects the targets among noise, measures the distance, longitudinal speed and the azimuth angle of the targets, tracks the targets continuously, and controls the ego vehicle to brake or accelerate. Performance of the radar signal processing software is closely related with the radar hardware properties and radar measurement conditions.
Technical Paper

Security Mechanisms Design of Automotive Gateway Firewall

Automotive security has become one of important topics in recent years under new automotive Electronic and Electrical Architecture (EEA). With the development of Intelligent Connected Vehicle (ICV), it has become possible to hack an automotive through in-vehicle networks. The introduction of Information Communications Technology (ICT) brings more risk threats to automotive. Researchers have shown that an attacker can easily tamper with many automotive functions via On-Board Diagnostic II (OBD-II) or In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI). In order to protect automotive against malicious attacks, automotive security risks were analyzed and then security mechanisms based on network firewall were designed in this paper. Automotive network firewall is a security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffics of automotive based on predetermined security rules. The main functions of network firewall include packet filter, anti-DoS and access control.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Behavioral Modeling Methods for Motor Drive System EMI Design Optimization

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume, weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications, particularly in airborne and other mobile platforms.
Technical Paper

The Application of Compressed Sensing in Automotive Radar Signal Processing for the Target Location

Millimeter wave (MMW) automotive radar plays an important role in the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS), which detects vehicles, pedestrians and other obstacles. In the adaptive cruise control (ACC) and the automatic emergency brake (AEB) system, the target needs to be oriented. One of the automotive radar’s task is to get the direction information which includes the range, speed, azimuth and height of the target by high intermediate frequency (IF) signal sampling rate. In order to solve the problem of high sampling rate for the MMW radar caused by the traditional Nyquist sampling theorem when the target is located, a new method based on the compressed sensing (CS) for the target location is proposed in this paper. This paper presents the linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) model and simulates the sampling and reconstruction of the radar’s IF signal via CS technique by using MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System Based on LuGre Friction Model

In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake(I-EHB) system is introduced, which is mainly composed of a motor, a worm gear, a worm, a gear, a rack etc. The friction leads the system to the creeping phenomenon and the dead zone. These phenomenon seriously affect the response speed and the hydraulic pressure control .In order to realize the accurate hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB system, a new friction compensation control method is proposed based on LuGre dynamic friction model. And the theoretical design of adaptive control method is designed based on the feedback of the master cylinder pressure and the operating state of the system. Then the stability of the control method is proved by Lyapunov theorem. A co-simulation model is built with Matlab/Simulink and AMESim, so as to prove the validity of the control method.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cascade Optimum Braking Control Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
Technical Paper

Security Mechanisms Design for In-Vehicle Network Gateway

In the automotive network architecture, the basic functions of gateway include routing, diagnostic, network management and so on. With the rapid development of connected vehicles, the cybersecurity has become an important topic in the automotive network. A spoof ECU can be used to hack the automotive network. In order to prevent the in-vehicle networks from attacking, the automotive gateway is an important part of the security architecture. A secure gateway should be able to authenticate the connected ECU and control the access to the critical network domain. The data and signals transferred between gateway and ECUs should be protected to against wiretap attacking. The purpose of this paper is to design a secure gateway for in-vehicle networks. In this paper, the designing process of the automotive secure gateway is presented. Based on the threat analysis, security requirements for automotive gateway are defined.
Technical Paper

Critical Driving Scenarios Extraction Optimization Method Based on China-FOT Naturalistic Driving Study Database

Due to the differences in traffic situations and traffic safety laws, standards for extraction of critical driving scenarios (CDSs) vary from different countries and areas around the world. To maintain the characteristic variables under the Chinese typical CDSs, this paper uses the three-layer detection method to extract and detect CDSs in the Natural Driving Data from China-FOT project which executing under the real traffic situation in China. The first layer of detection is mainly based on the feature distributions which deviate from normal driving situations. These distributions associated with speed and longitudinal acceleration/lateral acceleration/yaw rate also quantify the critical levels classification.
Technical Paper

Application Oriented Testcase Generation for Validation of Environment Perception Sensor in Automated Driving Systems

Validation is one of the main challenges in development of automated driving systems (ADS). Due to the complexity of these systems and the various influence factors on their functional safety, current testcase generation methods can hardly guarantee the completeness and effectivity of the validation on system level. Separate validation of system components is a way to make system approval possible. In this paper, an approach is presented to generate deductively testcases for the validation of the environment perception sensors, which are the most essential components of ADS. This approach is originated from the model-based testing method, which is commonly used to validate software-based systems and extended by considering various external influence factors as follows: By modeling and analyzing applications in ADS, application oriented usecases of perception sensors are first derived.