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Technical Paper

Natural Gas Hybrid Electric Bus

1991-02-01
910248
The design and predicted performance of a hybrid electric powered transit bus is described. The bus is a 7.6 meter (25 ft), 24 passenger vehicle that incorporates a low floor design and rear door accessible to handicap passengers. The low floor and rear door are made possible by the use of individual high power density permanent magnet motors driving the rear wheels. The hybrid electric drive system consists of a compressed natural gas fueled internal combustion engine that drives a generator which in conjunction with storage batteries supply power to the two traction motors.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Particulate Filter System Using Assisted Regeneration for Mechanical Handling Equipment

1991-02-01
910134
A cooperative R&D program involving Engine Control Systems Ltd. (ECS) and Consolidated Freightways, Inc. (C-F) has resulted in a diesel emissions control system for small to medium sized mechanical handling equipment. This paper outlines the design specifics of the system with an emphasis on the manner in which forktrucks can relatively easily be retrofitted. Both laboratory and in-field test results are outlined. The particulate filter system uses electric power to induce regeneration when backpressure rises to unacceptable levels.
Technical Paper

Improved Vehicle Heating with the Use of PTC Ceramic

1990-02-01
900220
Recent trends towards engines with lower heat rejection rates in production vehicles has progressively reduced the amount of available ‘waste’ heat for compartment heating. In an effort to reduce compartment heat up time while increasing the compartment temperature, a new PTC (positive temperature coefficient) electric heater system has been developed to supplement the performance of current hot water based vehicle heaters. The PTC supplemental heater system features automatic power adjustment in response to ambient temperature conditions and HVAC fan speed, along with self regulation of the heater temperature. In addition, the power draw of the PTC heater can be matched automatically to the available electrical power level for all vehicle operating conditions. This paper describes the construction, performance characteristics, and applications of the PTC supplemental heater system.
Technical Paper

Air Conditioning Electric Vehicles with an Electronically Driven Variable Speed Scroll Type Compressor

1990-09-01
901738
A realistic air conditioning system for electric vehicles, (EV), which minimizes the sacrifice of drive range is proposed in this paper. A variable speed semi-hermetic scroll compressor and an automatic louver outlet air temperature control method for a small delivery van are used to attain suitable cooling performance and interior temperature controllability with acceptable noise characteristics. This air conditioning system, (A/C), offers a pre-cooling feature simply by tapping power from commercial electricity outlets before departing for service. The effect of a practical heat influx reduction applied to the vehicle, and of condenser improvement, is evaluated in terms of the electric power consumption and the actual sacrifice of the vehicle's drive range.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Advanced Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicle Applications

1989-02-01
890820
During 1988, battery technology evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute at the Argonne Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory. Cells and multicell modules from four developers were examined to determine their performance and life characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The results provide an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of twelve single cells and six 3- to 24-cell modules that encompass four technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, lead-acid, and Fe/Air).
Technical Paper

Li/FeS Battery Design for an Electric van

1989-02-01
890785
Li-alloy/FeS battery designs, based upon a well-characterized 300-Ah cell developed by Westinghouse Oceanic Division, have been developed for four electric vans currently under development by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. Computerized cell models were developed to calculate power, energy, weight, and volume values for a cell while varying key design parameters. Battery specifications and vehicle performance are given for the Chrysler TE Van, GMC G-Van, Ford ETX-II, and the Eaton DSEP.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

1997-02-24
971022
New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Study on Series Hybrid Electric Commuter-Car Concept

1997-02-24
970197
The purpose of this study is to examine a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as “Commuter-car” that is expected to be used for commutation or shopping in urban areas. Before starting experiments, an investigation of actual commutation driving was made. It was found that the driving distance was generally short and that start-stop frequency was high at commutation driving in urban areas. As a result of this driving investigation, it was educed to introduce an electric motor traction method into commuter-cars. First, a small generator was added to a conventional electric vehicle (EV) to convert it into a series hybrid vehicle. The running range of this vehicle was confirmed experimentally to be extended much more than the base EV in transient driving. Therefore, it was judged that series hybrid system is reasonable to be applied to commuter-cars.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Cold Start Emissions

1997-02-24
970266
In order to meet the strict automobile emission regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, new aftertreatment technologies such as the EHC and HC Adsorber have been developed to reduce the cold start emissions. The EHC is obviously effective in reducing emissions, but has the demerits of a large electric power demand and a complicated power control system to support it (13). A by-pass type HC adsorber system has the concerns of unreliable by-pass valves and complicated plumbing (10). A major technical challenge of the in-line type HC adsorber was the difference between the HC desorption temperature and the light-off temperature of the burn-off catalyst. This paper describes the evaluation results of a completely passive “In-line HC Adsorber System” which can reduce the cold start emissions without the application of any type of mechanical or pneumatic control valve in the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption for Various Power Assisted Steering Systems

1997-02-24
970379
The energy consumption of conventional open-centre hydraulic power steering was mapped to pinpoint areas of potential for improvement. Using this data, equivalent maps were generated for existing, and potential, competing systems. These maps were used to identify likely future trends in this area. The results immediately illustrate the gross inefficiency of the conventional system due to high parasitic losses and indicate not only that systems that operate purely “on-demand”, such as electric power steering (EPS), are likely to be the optimum solution at least as far as energy consumption is concerned but also that interim solutions such as electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) can make significant contributions.
Technical Paper

Precise Temperature Control for Molten Ferrous Alloy in Induction Furnace

1997-02-24
970376
A precise control system for a molten ferrous alloy temperature above 1700 K after the completion of induction melting has been developed in order to produce high quality casting parts for automobiles. In this system, the molten ferrous alloy temperature is measured just one time by a disposable thermocouple after the melting. The system predicts the temperature transition after the measurement using an original thermal model, and adjusts the supplied electric power to the furnace automatically according to the predicted temperature. Using this thermal model, the system has attained control deviations within ±5K under the following temperature controls, and contributed to the quality control of casting parts and the energy-saving during furnace operations. Casting temperature for a cast-steel of 1813 K in a 300 kg capacity high-frequency induction furnace on the “Toyota Vacuum Casting Process”.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Program in Hawaii

1990-02-01
900139
The U.S. has a growing dependence upon imported oil to meet transportation requirements. There are no simple alternatives, but electric vehicles (EVs) can help meet transportation needs in urban areas. Furthermore, EVs do not pollute, add to the greenhouse effect, nor cause acid rain, especially if their electrical energy is generated by safe and non-polluting renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and ocean thermal. Hawaii's short driving distances and year-around temperatures in the range of 21-27° C (70-80° F) makes it an ideal location for optimizing electric vehicle performance. The EV program being carried out by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), began as a demonstration program, was followed by an improvement program, and now focuses primarily on test and evaluation of battery systems.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study on Internal Energy Supply for Magnetic Levitation Trains

1990-08-01
901480
During a magnetic levitation car as JR maglev train is accelerated or decelerated at low speed, there arises a requirement for a special energy supply and storage system for supplying electric power to auxiliaries inside the trains as cryogenic refrigerator, air conditioners, and lights, for short time about one minute. Here in this paper, many energy systems, as hydrogen engines, fuel cells, hydrogen batteries, flywheel, etc. are studied and compared to each other as candidates for this internal energy supply system of JR-maglev train. For comparison, many view points as weight, size, energy density, recharge ability, reliability, and emissions, etc. were picked up and each system was studied and discussed from these view points, and compared to each other. For conclusion, several systems including Ni-Cd battery, hydrogen battery, metal hydride fuel cell, flywheel, hydrogen engine, and others were selected as best candidates.
Technical Paper

The Design and Fabrication of “Texas Native Sun”, The University of Texas Entry in G.M. Sunrayce U.S.A., a Solar Powered Vehicle Race Across the United States

1990-08-01
901515
A team of student engineers at the University of Texas at Austin has designed and built “Texas Native Sun”, a solar powered vehicle for competition in GM Sunrayce U.S.A. The single-seat vehicle uses conventional photovoltaic solar cells to produce electricity for vehicle propulsion. The vehicle features graphite/epoxy composite monocoque construction, a high power-density permanent magnet electric motor, a mechanical/hydraulic continuously variable transmission, nickel-hydrogen satellite batteries, and a composite leaf spring suspension. The race strategies and tactics of energy management are optimized through use of a computer code which simulates the vehicle under race conditions. Much of the technology employed in the vehicle may one day become an ordinary part of future transportation systems which seek greater energy efficiency and less damage to the environment.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Requirements

1989-09-01
892065
This paper presents results of an assessment that identifies vehicle technology and fuel distribution system changes and costs associated with providing sufficient alternative fuels to displace one million barrels/day petroleum in the transportation sector in the 1995-2005 timeframe. The paper concludes that the capital cost of developing fuel delivery systems and a sufficient number of vehicles to achieve this displacement will be $22 billion if the alternative fuel is methanol, $36 billion if natural gas, and $288 billion if electricity. The predominant component of these costs is that of the incremental cost of the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Low Oil Level Sensing with Thermistors

1989-09-01
891758
AS temperature sensing elements, thermistors have been in use for more than four decades. They have become quite useful in stabilizing electronic circuits and measuring temperature. They are used as surge protectors for electric motors and electrical power devices as well as fluid level sensing elements. Improvements in technology and manufacturing methods expanded their usefulness for higher temperature applications. This paper will offer an overview of various oil level sensing technologies and then will examine the characteristics of thermistors and their use as low oil level sensors for engines.
Technical Paper

Application of Solar Cells to the Automobile

1989-08-01
891696
This paper is a summary of the applications of the solar cell to automobiles. The solar cell, which generates electric power using solar energy, has become more efficient for electric power generation. As the result, a higher electric power output has been able to be obtained with a smaller cell. Therefore, for internal combustion engine powered vehicles, the solar cell is being applied to an auxiliary charger for prevention of battery-running-down, to a ventilation system, etc.. However, the ultimate application of the solar cell is for the vehicle power source. One application is for the auxiliary battery charging of electric vehicles and the other is for solar powered vehicles for which solar energy itself is utilized as the power source. We made several solar powered vehicles as an experiment using silicon cells (which are the most popular type of solar cell) applied to conventional techniques used in electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Electric Power, High Density Mounting Module

1990-02-01
900781
As the car-mount electronic control devices are increasing in number and variety, power train control devices for controlling actuators such as motors and solenoids are intensively developed at great speed. The electronic circuits used in these devices contain microcomputers, LSIs and ICs that have arithmetic processing functions, and power transistors that drive the actuators, and therefore they are always accompanied by the problem of temperature rise of electronic circuit elements due to heat generation of power transistors caused by operation of the devices, which made it difficult to reduce the size of the device while guaranteeing the reliability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Charging Alcoholic Fuel with Electricity on Engine Performances

1989-11-01
891337
By using an inside visible carburettor, effects of high voltage application to the injected fuel on its behaviour and engine performances are investigated. At first five electrode arrangements around the venturi are examined to clearify the charging mechanism on the injected fuel and its effect on the fuel atomization. The experimental results show that when induced charging, corona charging and electrostatic force are effectively applied to the injected fuel, its atomization is remarkably improved. The diameter of fuel droplets monotonously decreases with increase of applied voltage and the effect is more distinct when the induced air velocity is low. Firing engine test is also carried out and it is revealed that when the throttle valve opening is large, the application of voltage considerably spreads the combustible range toward leaner side. Cyclic variation is reduced and startability is improved by the charge under the severe operating condition.
Technical Paper

The System Development of Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC) for the LEV and EU-III Legislation

1995-02-01
951072
Future requirements of the legislative body in the USA and Europe, towards the reduction of exhaust emissions of motor vehicles, forces the automobile industry to improve its technology continually. An electrically heated catalyst, abbreviated EHC, offers a very high potential for exhaust gas reduction in the cold start phase of the engine. A team of German automobile manufacturers is therefore developing a complete EHC System and laying down specifications which will enable the supply industry to undertake goal-orientated development of following components. The complete system comprises the components: heated catalyst, electricity supplier, electronic control, cables, plug and socket connections, secondary air system and their respective functions. In the following, the possible variations of the EHC system are explained and the components presented.
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