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Journal Article

Genetic Algorithm based Automated Calibration Tool for Numerical Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-1265
An automated process was developed for the calibration of numerical aftertreatment models. The chemical kinetic mechanism examined in this case was part of a simplified SCR model. The process adopted for calibrating the SCR model was based on a micro-population multi-objective genetic algorithm. The algorithm developed was used to calibrate the SCR model using data derived from another, more detailed model to ensure that the evaluation focused only on the effectiveness of the calibration process and was not affected by issues of experimental inaccuracies or details of the model chemistry involved.
Journal Article

Properties of Partial-Flow and Coarse Pore Deep Bed Filters Proposed to Reduce Particle Emission of Vehicle Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1087
Four of these Particulate Reduction Systems (PMS) were tested on a passenger car and one of them on a HDV. Expectation of the research team was that they would reach at least a PM-reduction of 30% under all realistic operating conditions. The standard German filter test procedure for PMS was performed but moreover, the response to various operating conditions was tested including worst case situations. Besides the legislated CO, NOx and PM exhaust-gas emissions, also the particle count and NO2 were measured. The best filtration efficiency with one PMS was indeed 63%. However, under critical but realistic conditions filtration of 3 of 4 PMS was measured substantially lower than the expected 30 %, depending on operating conditions and prior history, and could even completely fail. Scatter between repeated cycles was very large and results were not reproducible. Even worse, with all 4 PMS deposited soot, stored in these systems during light load operation was intermittently blown-off.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Journal Article

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part II: Optical Engine Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1106
The effect that thermally and compositionally stratified flowfields have on the spatial progression of iso-octane-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion were directly observed using highspeed chemiluminescence imaging. The stratified in-cylinder conditions were produced by independently feeding the intake valves of a four-valve engine with thermally and compositionally different mixtures of air, vaporized fuel, and argon. Results obtained under homogeneous conditions, acquired for comparison to stratified operation, showed a small natural progression of the combustion from the intake side to the exhaust side of the engine, a presumed result of natural thermal stratification created from heat transfer between the in-cylinder gases and the cylinder walls. Large differences in the spatial progression of the HCCI combustion were observed under stratified operating conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1123
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
Journal Article

Efficacy of EGR and Boost in Single-Injection Enabled Low Temperature Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1126
Exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection strategy and boost pressure are among the key enablers to attain low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously on modern diesel engines. In this work, the individual influence of these parameters on the emissions are investigated independently for engine loads up to 8 bar IMEP. A single-shot fuel injection strategy has been deployed to push the diesel cycle into low temperature combustion with EGR. The results indicated that NOx was a stronger respondent to injection pressure levels than to boost when the EGR ratio is relatively low. However, when the EGR level was sufficiently high, the NOx was virtually grounded and the effect of boost or injection pressure becomes irrelevant. Further tests indicated that a higher injection pressure lowered soot emissions across the EGR sweeps while the effect of boost on the soot reduction appeared significant only at higher soot levels.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1124
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Journal Article

Dynamic Modeling of HCCI Combustion Timing in Transient Fueling Operation

2009-04-20
2009-01-1136
A physics-based control-oriented model is developed to dynamically predict cycle-to-cycle combustion timing in transient fueling conditions for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The model simulates the engine cycle from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke and includes the thermal coupling dynamics caused by the residual gases from one cycle to the next cycle. A residual gas model, a modified knock integral model, a fuel burn rate model, and thermodynamic models for the gas state in combustion and exhaust strokes are incorporated to simulate the engine cycle. The gas exchange process, generated work and completeness of combustion are predicted using semi-empirical correlations. The resulting model is parameterized for the combustion of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) blends using 5703 simulations from a detailed thermo-kinetic model. Semi-empirical correlations in the model are parameterized using the experimental data obtained from a single-cylinder engine.
Journal Article

Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1447
The present paper describes an experimental study on the effect of the compression ratio on the performance of a LD diesel engine operating with a PCCI calibration, near the estimated EURO 6/Tier2 Bin5 NOx emission limits. The research activity is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori and Centro Ricerche Fiat aimed to carry out an exhaustive analysis of the compression ratio (CR) influence on the performance of a LD diesel engine. Starting from a reference engine configuration the CR was reduced in two steps sequentially. Each CR value was characterized under PCCI operation mode and, under conventional diesel operating mode, at maximum torque. The exploration of the PCCI application in the NEDC operating area was performed prefixing limits on maximum fuel consumption, maximum pressure rise and maximum tolerable smoke. The main result was that no significant increment in PCCI application area reducing the CR was possible without overcoming the limits.
Journal Article

Application of a Flow Field Based Heat Transfer Model to Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1423
A realistic modeling of the wall heat transfer is essential for an accurate analysis and simulation of the working cycle of internal combustion engines. Empirical heat transfer formulations still dominate the application in engine process simulations because of their simplicity. However, experiments have shown that existing correlations do not provide satisfactory results for all the possible operation modes of hydrogen internal combustion engines. This paper describes the application of a flow field-based heat transfer model according to Schubert et al. [1]. The models strength is a more realistic description of the required characteristic velocity; considering the influence of the injection on the global turbulence and on the in-cylinder flow field results in a better prediction of the wall heat transfer during the compression stroke and for operations with multiple injections. Further an empirical hypothesis on the turbulence generation during combustion is presented.
Journal Article

Sources of UHC Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2009-04-20
2009-01-1446
Sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions are examined for a highly dilute (10% oxygen concentration), moderately boosted (1.5 bar), low load (3.0 bar IMEP) operating condition in a single-cylinder, light-duty, optically accessible diesel engine undergoing partially-premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC). The evolution of the in-cylinder spatial distribution of UHC is observed throughout the combustion event through measurement of liquid fuel distributions via elastic light scattering, vapor and liquid fuel distributions via laser-induced fluorescence, and velocity fields via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The measurements are complemented by and contrasted with the predictions of multi-dimensional simulations employing a realistic, though reduced, chemical mechanism to describe the combustion process.
Journal Article

Modeling the Cold Start of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1493
Optimization of the engine cold start is critical for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, since the emissions during the first 20 seconds of the cold start constitute more than 80% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for the entire EPA FTP75 drive cycle. However, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine cold start optimization is very challenging due to the rapidly changing engine speed, cold thermal environment and low cranking fuel pressure. One approach to reduce HC emissions for DISI engines is to adopt retarded spark so that engines generate high heat fluxes for faster catalyst light-off during the cold idle. This approach typically degrades the engine combustion stability and presents additional challenges to the engine cold start. This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address these challenges for the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost engine cold start.
Journal Article

Optimal Use of E85 in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1490
Ford Motor Company is introducing “EcoBoost” gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine technology in the 2010 Lincoln MKS. A logical enhancement of EcoBoost technology is the use of E85 for knock mitigation. The subject of this paper is the optimal use of E85 by using two fuel systems in the same EcoBoost engine: port fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct injection (DI) of E85. Gasoline PFI is used for starting and light-medium load operation, while E85 DI is used only as required during high load operation to avoid knock. Direct injection of E85 (a commercially available blend of ∼85% ethanol and ∼15% gasoline) is extremely effective in suppressing knock, due to ethanol's high inherent octane and its high heat of vaporization, which results in substantial cooling of the charge. As a result, the compression ratio (CR) can be increased and higher boost levels can be used.
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