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Journal Article

Gasoline Fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition in a Light Duty Multi Cylinder Engine: A Study of Low Load and Low Speed Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1791
The objective of this study was to examine the operating characteristics of a light duty multi cylinder compression ignition engine with regular gasoline fuel at low engine speed and load. The effects of fuel stratification by means of multiple injections as well as the sensitivity of auto-ignition and burn rate to intake pressure and temperature are presented. The measurements used in this study included gaseous emissions, filter smoke opacity and in-cylinder indicated information. It was found that stable, low emission operation was possible with raised intake manifold pressure and temperature, and that fuel stratification can lead to an increase in stability and a reduced reliance on increased temperature and pressure. It was also found that the auto-ignition delay sensitivity of gasoline to intake temperature and pressure was low within the operating window considered in this study.
Journal Article

Online Implementation of an Optimal Supervisory Control for a Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

2009-06-15
2009-01-1868
The authors present the supervisory control of a parallel hybrid powertrain, focusing on several issues related to the real-time implementation of optimal control based techniques, such as the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS). Real-time implementation is introduced as an intermediate step of a complete chain of tools aimed at investigating the supervisory control problem. These tools comprise an offline optimizer based on Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP), a two-layer real-time control structure, and a modular engine-in-the-loop test bench. Control results are presented for a regulatory drive cycle with the aim of illustrating the benefits of optimal control in terms of fuel economy, the role of the optimization constraints dictated by drivability requirements, and the effectiveness of the feedback rule proposed for the adaptation of the equivalence factor (Lagrange multiplier).
Journal Article

Application of a Tunable-Diode-Laser Absorption Diagnostic for CO Measurements in an Automotive HCCI Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2254
An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
Journal Article

OILPAS - Online Imaging of Liquid-Particle-Suspensions - How to Prevent a Sudden Engine Breakdown

2010-05-05
2010-01-1528
Amount and size distribution of wear particles in engine lubricating oil are indicators of the current machine condition. A change in size distribution, especially a rise in the amount of larger particles, often indicates a starting wear of some machine parts. Monitoring wear particles contained in lubricating oil during normal machine operation can help to identify the need for maintenance and more important to prevent sudden failure of the machine. An optical method is used to image a thin layer of oil to count and classify contained particles. Therefore, a continuous flow of undiluted oil from the oil circuit of the machine is pumped through the measurement instrument. Inside the instrument, the oil flow is directed through a thin transparent flow cell. Images are taken using a bright LED flashlight source, a magnification lens, and a digital camera. Algorithms have been developed to process and analyze the images.
Journal Article

A Study of Drying-Up Friction and Noise of Automotive Accessory Belt

2013-04-08
2013-01-1701
Multiple-ribbed V belts have been widely used in automotive accessory drive systems to transmit power from crankshaft to power steering pump, alternator, and air conditioning (A/C) compressor. Overload under severe environmental conditions can lead to excessive slippage in the belt pulley interface in poorly designed accessory drive systems. This can lead to undesirable noise that increases warranty cost substantially. The mechanisms of this tribology phenomenon, noise features and system response are of utmost interest to the accessory drive system engineers. As accessory belt systems are usually used in ambient condition, the presence of water or moisture on belt is unavoidable under rainy or highly humid conditions. It has been found that the wet friction with negative coefficient of friction (cof)-velocity slope can lead to self-excited vibrations and squeal noise.
Technical Paper

LPG and Prechamber as Enabler for Highly Performant and Efficient Combustion Processes Under Stoichiometric Conditions

2021-09-05
2021-24-0032
The European Union has defined legally binding CO2-fleet targets for new cars until 2030. Therefore, improvement of fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission reduction is becoming one of the most important issues for the car manufacturers. Today’s conventional car powertrain systems are reaching their technical limits and will not be able to meet future CO2 targets without further improvement in combustion efficiency, using low carbon fuels (LCF), and at least mild electrification. This paper demonstrates a highly efficient and performant combustion engine concept with a passive pre-chamber spark plug, operating at stoichiometric conditions and powered with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Even from fossil origin, LPG features many advantages such as low carbon/hydrogen ratio, low price and broad availability. In future, it can be produced from renewables and it is in liquid state under relatively low pressures, allowing the use of conventional injection and fuel supply components.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Steady-State and Stop-Start Emissions in a Wankel Rotary Engine with a Novel Rotor Cooling Arrangement

2021-09-05
2021-24-0097
The present work investigates a means of controlling engine hydrocarbon startup and shutdown emissions in a Wankel engine which uses a novel rotor cooling method. Mechanically the engine employs a self-pressurizing air-cooled rotor system (SPARCS) configured to provide improved cooling versus a simple air-cooled rotor arrangement. The novelty of the SPARCS system is that it uses the fact that blowby past the sealing grid is inevitable in a Wankel engine as a means of increasing the density of the medium used for cooling the rotor. Unfortunately, the design also means that when the engine is shutdown, due to the overpressure within the engine core and the fact that fuel vapour and lubricating oil are to be found within it, unburned hydrocarbons can leak into the combustion chambers, and thence to the atmosphere via either or both of the intake and exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Energy Management and Control for a Hybridized Through-The-Road Car

2021-09-05
2021-24-0107
The deployment of electric and hybrid electric vehicle is accounted to be the most feasible solution for lowering the transportation sector pollution emissions and energy consumption. However, the transition to electrified mobility is not behind the corner and many challenges, such as battery recharging issues, free-carbon electricity and grid sustainability, remain unsolved. A sustainable solution, also from a Life-Cycle Assessment perspective, is the conversion of existing vehicles into hybrid solar cars. In this study, the latest updates of the LIFE-SAVE project for the development of an aftermarket kit for vehicles hybridization are presented. In particular, the application of the Pontryagin’s Minimum Principles for the optimal control of a transformed vehicle is presented. Results show that fuel economy on the vehicle both in charge sustaining and in charge depleting operations are improved by about 1% and 13%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of HVAC Power Consumption in Electric Vehicle Integrated with Thin Film Solar PV Panels

2021-09-15
2021-28-0122
Air conditioning systems are one of the significant auxiliary loads on the vehicle powertrain. In an Electric Vehicle (EV) where the available energy is limited, it becomes crucial to optimize the overall energy consumption of the auxiliary loads. The major power consuming components in an automotive HVAC system (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) are: Compressor, Cabin blower, Condenser cooling fan and the Control devices. Significant progress is already made in enhancing the energy efficiency of the above-mentioned power consuming components part of vehicle HVAC system. Alternate energy sources are being explored recently, to reduce the energy demand from vehicle. One such proposal is to harness the abundant solar energy available, through solar panels and consume this energy to supplement the power required for HVAC system components. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy by the principle of the photovoltaic effect.
Technical Paper

Solar Powered Incabin Evaporative Cooling System

2021-09-15
2021-28-0144
During hot ambient, the cabin temperature of vehicle undergoing soaking may rise up to 70oC. Warm temperature and seats often turn uncomfortable to the passenger. The high temperature may result in thermal degradation of various plastic components, which in turn may release hazardous gases [2]. Usual practice to improve air quality inside the cabin includes switching on the air conditioning while keeping the window panes open. Such a practice minimizes the stabilization time to achieve comfortable cabin temperature. However, significant power requirement by the air-conditioning system during cool down cycle results in excess fuel consumption [7]. To eliminate these problems, the SOLAR POWERED INCABIN EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM can be installed in the car. This system uses a solar panel which converts the Solar energy into the Electrical energy. This energy can be used to recharge small battery or can be directly used to give necessary power for the cooling system.
Technical Paper

Parked Car Thermal Management and Air Quality System

2021-09-15
2021-28-0150
The motivation of this work is to respond to high cabin temperatures within a parked/stationary vehicle which may cause discomfort and lead to vehicular heatstroke. The system also intends to ensure sufficient limits of oxygen within the vehicle cabin to prevent asphyxiation to the cabin occupants. The rise in global temperature is affecting the quality of air and comfort of occupants inside a parked car. There have been several cases reported of pets and children being left unattended or unsupervised in a parked car for a long period of time which have led to their deaths due to asphyxiation. The use of cost-effective materials like high density plastics for interior cabin trim have also been proven to contribute to cancer because of the emission of benzene a carcinogen by these plastics when exposed to extreme temperatures for long periods of time.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance and Ambient Airside Pressure Drop Prediction for Automotive Charge Air Cooler Using 1-D Simulation

2021-09-15
2021-28-0135
The present work discusses the developed simulation model aimed to predict the heat rejection (HR) performance and external pressure drop characteristics of automotive charge air cooler (CAC). Heat rejection and airside pressure drop characteristics of CAC were predicted for the conditions of different charge air mass flow rates and different cooling air velocities. The lack of detailed research on CAC performance prediction has motivated the development of the proposed simulation model. The present 1-D simulation has been developed based on the signal library of AMESIM application tool. Input parameters for this simulation such as core size, tube pitch, tube height, number of tubes, fin density, louver angle, louver pitch, charge air mass flow rate, cooling air velocity, charge air inlet temperature, and ambient temperature. Heat rejection curve and airside pressure drop of CAC were the output of the present simulation.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Two-Wheeler Radiator with the Base Design Using the Mathematical Modelling Tools & Testing Data

2021-09-15
2021-28-0136
Radiators are types of heat exchangers, which are used to transfer the heat from one fluid to another fluid. It is mainly used in automobile engine cooling systems and the radiators are the major source of heat rejection from the system by cooling the working fluid (generally water or glycol mixture). The application of radiators in the two-wheeler vehicle segment plays a vital role in increasing engine efficiency by maintaining the optimum temperature inside the engine assembly. As the technology advances with higher power requirements for the two-wheeler vehicle segment, thermal management of combustion engine becomes a critical part of it, resulting in the advancement of radiator technology in terms of compactness and thermal performance. In order to cater to the increasing demand for high-powered engines, performance optimization of two-wheeler radiators becomes an important aspect of design.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation-Based Methodology for Automotive Grill Opening Area Optimization

2021-09-15
2021-28-0133
This paper discusses the methodology setup for grill opening area prediction at the early development phase of the product development lifecycle, using a commercially available 1D simulation tool- AMESIM. Representative under hood has been modeled using Grill, Condenser, Radiator, intercooler, fan, and engine components. Vehicle velocity is used as an input to derive the airflow passing through the grill and other under-hood components based on ram air coefficient, pressure drop through different components (Grill, Heat exchanger, Fan & Engine). This airflow is used to predict the top tank temperature of the radiator. Derived airflow is correlated with airflow obtained from CFD simulation. A balance has been achieved between cooling drag & fan power consumption at different grill opening areas for target top tank temperature. Top tank temperature has been predicted at two different extreme engine heat rejection operating points.
Technical Paper

Under-Hood CRFM and CAC Air Flow Management of Vehicle to Improve Thermal Performance by 1D Method Using Amesim

2021-09-15
2021-28-0140
Currently the Automotive industry demands highly competitive product to survive in the global tough competition. The engine cooling system plays a vital role in meeting the stringent emission norms and improving the vehicle fuel economy apart from maintaining the operating temperature of engine. The airflow through vehicle subsystems like the grille, bumper, the heat exchangers, the fan and shroud and engine bay are called as front-end flow. Front end flow is crucial factor in engine cooling system as well as in determining the aerodynamic drag of vehicle. The airflow through the engine compartment is determined by the front-end vehicle geometry, the CRFM and CAC package, the engine back restriction and the engine compartment geometry including the inlet and outlet sections. This paper discusses the 1D modelling method for front-end airflow rate prediction and thermal performance by 1D method. The underbody components are stacked using heat stack and simulated in pressure mode.
Technical Paper

Attaining Thermal Comfort by Utilizing Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Embedded Wind Shield and Roof of a Passenger Car

2021-09-15
2021-28-0151
Despite the advances in the field of vehicle thermal management, certain challenges still exists which are yet necessary to be addressed. One of among those challenges is maintaining the vehicle cabin temperature at a comfortable level and reducing the losses incurred by the vehicle. Vehicle cabin temperature is an important factor in deciding the reliability, longevity and fuel economy of a vehicle. Also, for the safety and comfort of the driver and passengers, the comfort conditions are to be maintained in all climatic conditions. The cabin temperature is increased due to thermal soaking from direct sunlight and this increases the vehicle cabin temperature up to a range of 50 0C to 70 0C. The amount of solar radiation entering into the vehicle cabin is a major factor which is a contribution of transmissivity of light radiation through the windows including the windshield.
Technical Paper

Virtual Platform Development for New Control Logic Concept Test and Validation

2021-09-21
2021-01-1143
As computer-aided engineering software tools advance, more simulation-based processes are utilized to reduce development time and cost. Traditionally, during the development of a new control algorithm dyno or on-road testing is necessary to validate a new function, however, physical testing is both costly and time consuming. This study introduces a co-simulation platform and discusses its use as an improved method of powertrain control logic development. The simulation platform consists of a dynamic vehicle model, virtual road network and simulated traffic objects. Engineers can utilize Matlab/Simulink along with other programs such as PTV Vissim, Tass Prescan, and AVL Cruise to create an integrated platform capable of testing and validating new control strategies. The structure and configuration of this virtual platform is explained in this paper, and an example use case is demonstrated. A driver model was developed to simulate realistic vehicle inputs.
Technical Paper

Influence of the MeFo and DMC Content in the Fuel on the Gasoline DI Spray Characteristics with the Focus on Droplet Speed and Size

2021-09-21
2021-01-1191
E-fuels are proven to be a major contributing factor to reduce CO2 emissions in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, C1 oxygenate are seen as critical to reach CO2 and emission reduction goals. Their properties affect the fuel injection characteristics and thus the fuel mixture formation and combustion emissions. To exploit the full potential of e-fuels, the detailed knowledge of their spray characteristic is necessary. The correlation between the fuel content of C1 oxygenates and particulate emissions do not appear to be linear. To understand this correlation, the spray characteristics have to be investigated in detail. The reduced stoichiometric air requirement leads to an increase of the injected fuel mass, which has to evaporate. This can lead to a changed fuel film interaction within the combustion chamber walls and therefore a change of particle formation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Blend Fuel Properties on Combustion Improvement Under Heterogeneous Combustion Field by Using Multi-Impinging Injection System

2021-09-21
2021-01-1194
To solve the engine performance deterioration and emission problems caused by fuel spray impingement on combustion chamber wall from direct injection internal engines, we bring out the new fuel injection concept, which we call it the impinging injection method. The impinging injection method uses two opposite injectors and tries to achieve spray atomization effect from the fuel sprays collision. A constant volume combustion chamber was used to confirm the spray characteristics and the combustion improvements. Previous study confirmed a significant reduction of spray/wall impingement and combustion improvements. Therefore, in this study, from the aspect of surrogate fuel, we investigated the spray and combustion characteristics of n-butanol addition blend with iso-octane and n-hexadecane, respectively, by using impinging injection and multi-impinging injection with different injection timing conditions. The n-butanol addition ratio ranged from 0% to 50%.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel by Reforming with Cross-Metathesis Reaction

2021-09-21
2021-01-1205
The boiling point curve of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel fuel, can be adapted to that of diesel fuel by breaking FAME down into a low-molecular structure using a cross-metathesis reaction with a short-chain olefin. Reformulated FAME by a metathesis reaction consists mainly of medium-chain olefins and fatty acid methyl esters. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emissions from reformulated FAME were investigated through engine bench tests. Surrogate fuels made from typical chemical components of reformulated FAME were used to clarify the effects of respective components upon combustion. Surrogate fuels were made by mixing 1-decene, 1-tetradecene, methyl laurate, methyl palmitate, and methyl oleate to simulate the boiling point, oxygen mass concentration, and calorific value of reformed biodiesel of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). A single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with common-rail-type injection system was used.
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