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Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Journal Article

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part II: Optical Engine Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1106
The effect that thermally and compositionally stratified flowfields have on the spatial progression of iso-octane-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion were directly observed using highspeed chemiluminescence imaging. The stratified in-cylinder conditions were produced by independently feeding the intake valves of a four-valve engine with thermally and compositionally different mixtures of air, vaporized fuel, and argon. Results obtained under homogeneous conditions, acquired for comparison to stratified operation, showed a small natural progression of the combustion from the intake side to the exhaust side of the engine, a presumed result of natural thermal stratification created from heat transfer between the in-cylinder gases and the cylinder walls. Large differences in the spatial progression of the HCCI combustion were observed under stratified operating conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1123
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1124
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Journal Article

Dynamic Modeling of HCCI Combustion Timing in Transient Fueling Operation

2009-04-20
2009-01-1136
A physics-based control-oriented model is developed to dynamically predict cycle-to-cycle combustion timing in transient fueling conditions for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The model simulates the engine cycle from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke and includes the thermal coupling dynamics caused by the residual gases from one cycle to the next cycle. A residual gas model, a modified knock integral model, a fuel burn rate model, and thermodynamic models for the gas state in combustion and exhaust strokes are incorporated to simulate the engine cycle. The gas exchange process, generated work and completeness of combustion are predicted using semi-empirical correlations. The resulting model is parameterized for the combustion of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) blends using 5703 simulations from a detailed thermo-kinetic model. Semi-empirical correlations in the model are parameterized using the experimental data obtained from a single-cylinder engine.
Journal Article

Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1447
The present paper describes an experimental study on the effect of the compression ratio on the performance of a LD diesel engine operating with a PCCI calibration, near the estimated EURO 6/Tier2 Bin5 NOx emission limits. The research activity is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori and Centro Ricerche Fiat aimed to carry out an exhaustive analysis of the compression ratio (CR) influence on the performance of a LD diesel engine. Starting from a reference engine configuration the CR was reduced in two steps sequentially. Each CR value was characterized under PCCI operation mode and, under conventional diesel operating mode, at maximum torque. The exploration of the PCCI application in the NEDC operating area was performed prefixing limits on maximum fuel consumption, maximum pressure rise and maximum tolerable smoke. The main result was that no significant increment in PCCI application area reducing the CR was possible without overcoming the limits.
Journal Article

Application of a Flow Field Based Heat Transfer Model to Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1423
A realistic modeling of the wall heat transfer is essential for an accurate analysis and simulation of the working cycle of internal combustion engines. Empirical heat transfer formulations still dominate the application in engine process simulations because of their simplicity. However, experiments have shown that existing correlations do not provide satisfactory results for all the possible operation modes of hydrogen internal combustion engines. This paper describes the application of a flow field-based heat transfer model according to Schubert et al. [1]. The models strength is a more realistic description of the required characteristic velocity; considering the influence of the injection on the global turbulence and on the in-cylinder flow field results in a better prediction of the wall heat transfer during the compression stroke and for operations with multiple injections. Further an empirical hypothesis on the turbulence generation during combustion is presented.
Journal Article

Sources of UHC Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2009-04-20
2009-01-1446
Sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions are examined for a highly dilute (10% oxygen concentration), moderately boosted (1.5 bar), low load (3.0 bar IMEP) operating condition in a single-cylinder, light-duty, optically accessible diesel engine undergoing partially-premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC). The evolution of the in-cylinder spatial distribution of UHC is observed throughout the combustion event through measurement of liquid fuel distributions via elastic light scattering, vapor and liquid fuel distributions via laser-induced fluorescence, and velocity fields via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The measurements are complemented by and contrasted with the predictions of multi-dimensional simulations employing a realistic, though reduced, chemical mechanism to describe the combustion process.
Journal Article

Modeling the Cold Start of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1493
Optimization of the engine cold start is critical for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, since the emissions during the first 20 seconds of the cold start constitute more than 80% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for the entire EPA FTP75 drive cycle. However, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine cold start optimization is very challenging due to the rapidly changing engine speed, cold thermal environment and low cranking fuel pressure. One approach to reduce HC emissions for DISI engines is to adopt retarded spark so that engines generate high heat fluxes for faster catalyst light-off during the cold idle. This approach typically degrades the engine combustion stability and presents additional challenges to the engine cold start. This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address these challenges for the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost engine cold start.
Journal Article

Parametric Studies of the Impact of Turbocharging on Gasoline Engine Downsizing

2009-04-20
2009-01-1472
The internal combustion engine and associated powertrain are likely to remain the mainstay of mobility over the next twenty years and to remain a significant portion of the portfolio of technologies employed over a much longer period of time. Efficient combustion of all fuels (petroleum based or alternative) requires copious amounts of air particularly with downsized engines. Turbocharging technology thus becomes an even more critical part of reducing both global warming gas and urban pollutant emissions from IC engines. Gasoline engine downsizing and turbocharging have been shown to improve fuel economy by ∼20% in production vehicles. In addition to data over a wide range of engines/vehicles, the results of a simple analysis done on vehicles/engines/drive cycles are presented to show the benefits of turbocharging and downsizing in a parametric variation of downsizing in combination with other technologies.
Journal Article

Simulation-based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1471
Diesel engines have been used in large vehicles, locomotives and ships as more efficient alternatives to the gasoline engines. They have also been used in small passenger vehicle applications, but have not been as popular as in other applications until recently. The two main factors that kept them from becoming the major contender in the small passenger vehicle applications were the low power outputs and the noise levels. A combination of improved mechanical technologies such as multiple injection, higher injection pressure, and advanced electronic control has mostly mitigated the problems associated with the noise level and changed the public notion of the Diesel engine technology in the latest generation of common-rail designs. The power output of the Diesel engines has also been improved substantially through the use of variable geometry turbines combined with the advanced fuel injection technology.
Journal Article

Combustion System Optimization of a Low Compression-Ratio PCCI Diesel Engine for Light-Duty Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1464
A new combustion system with a low compression ratio (CR), specifically oriented towards the exploitment of partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) diesel engines, has been developed and tested. The work is part of a cooperative research program between Politecnico di Torino (PT) and GM Powertrain Europe (GMPT-E) in the frame of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) diesel combustion-system design and control. The baseline engine is derived from the GM 2.0L 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve-per-cylinder EU5 engine. It features a CR of 16.5, a single stage VGT turbocharger and a second generation Common Rail (1600 bar). A newly designed combustion bowl was applied. It features a central dome and a large inlet diameter, in order to maximize the air utilization factor at high load and to tolerate advanced injection timings at partial load. Two different piston prototypes were manufactured by changing the internal volume of the new bowl so as to reach CR targets of 15.5 and 15.
Journal Article

Study of the Mixing and Combustion Processes of Consecutive Short Double Diesel Injections

2009-04-20
2009-01-1352
The mixing and combustion processes of short double Diesel injections are investigated by optical diagnostics. A single hole Common Rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressure up to 120MPa is used. The spray is observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Three configurations are studied: a single short injection serving as a reference case and two double short injections with short and long dwell time (time between the injections). Several optical diagnostics were performed successively. The mixing process is studied by normalized Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence giving access to the vapor fuel concentration fields. In addition, the flow fields both inside and outside the jets are characterized by Particle Imaging Velocimetry.
Journal Article

Entrainment Waves in Diesel Jets

2009-04-20
2009-01-1355
Recent measurements in transient diesel jets have shown that fuel in the wake of the injection pulse mixes with ambient gases more rapidly than in a steady jet. This rapid mixing after the end of injection (EOI) can create fuel-lean regions near the fuel injector. These lean regions may not burn to completion for conditions where autoignition occurs after EOI, as is typical of low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel engines. In this study, transient diesel jets are analyzed using a simple one-dimensional jet model. The model predicts that after EOI, a region of increased entrainment, termed the “entrainment wave,” travels downstream at twice the initial jet propagation rate. The entrainment wave increases mixing by up to a factor of three. This entrainment wave is not specific to LTC jets, but rather it is important for both conventional diesel combustion and LTC conditions.
Journal Article

Keys to Understanding Spray-guided Combustion of a Narrow-spacing Gasoline Direct Injection SI Engine with a Centrally Mounted Multi-hole Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-1497
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection SI engines attract as one of new generation lean-burn engines to promise CO2 reduction. These typically adopt “narrow-spacing” concept in which an injector is centrally mounted close to a spark plug. Therefore, geometric targets of the fuel spray and a position of the spark plug have to be exactly limited to maintain a proper mixture in the spark gap. In addition, the stable combustion window is narrow because the spark ignition is limited in a short time during and immediately after the injection. These spatial and temporal restrictions involve some intractable problems concerning the combustion robustness due to the complicate phenomena around the spark plug. The local mixture preparation near the spark plug significantly depends on the spray-induced charge motion. The intense flow induced by the motion blows out and stretches the spark, thereby affecting the spark discharge performance.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel Injection Strategy for Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1527
A production version of a V-8 engine was redesigned to run on partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode with conventional diesel fuel. The objective of the PCCI combustion experiments was to obtain low engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and after-treatment tolerant soot emission level. Two fuel injection strategies were used during the PCCI combustion experiments: a) pilot-with-main injection strategy (Pil-M), b) pilot-with-main-and-post (PMP) injection strategy. In the Pil-M injection strategy, a significant fraction of the fuel was delivered early during the compression stroke. The early pilot helped to prepare a lean-mixture of enhanced homogeneity before the combustion was initiated. The combustion of this pilot injection followed by the main combustion helped to reduce soot for a constant NOx value. The pilot-injection timing and quantity had to be selected appropriately to retain the fuel-efficiency.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Journal Article

Noise Optimization of Diesel Engines with New Combustion Systems

2009-05-19
2009-01-2081
The Euro 6 emission standard requires a strong reduction of NOx and soot emissions for future Diesel engines. One of the ways to reach the Euro 6 standard for new Diesel engines is to adopt the low NOx combustion concept with new injection strategy, but this kind of combustion can give higher combustion noise and worse stability in transient conditions. This paper describes some of the new methodologies developed by Renault for controlling and optimizing Diesel combustion noise, particularly for engines with low NOx combustion modes. In steady working conditions, it was found that a homogeneous combustion mode gave high level of combustion excitation particularly in the 1000 Hz octave band. Thus improvement should be made in the engine structural attenuation (SA) in this frequency range in order to limit engine noise deterioration. This requires not only the technical solutions for improving the structural attenuation, but also reliable methods for measuring engine SA.
Journal Article

Development and Advances of a V-Flow FC Stack for FCX Clarity

2009-04-20
2009-01-1010
Honda has succeeded in developing the new fuel cell (FC) vehicle designed into a dynamic, full-cabin sedan, the FCX Clarity, originating from the new V Flow FC platform. The key technology is V Flow FC Stack, featuring V Flow cell structure in which the fuel gases run from top to bottom vertically through the wave flow-channels. According to this unique structure, the fuel cell stack sits longitudinally along the center tunnel, and a Vertebral layout has emerged. The Vertebral layout results in Volume efficient package and low-floor platform. The V Flow FC stack has achieved a high output of 100kW and improved the output density with 50% by volume and 67% by mass, compared to the previous 2005 model. The V Flow cell structure utilizes gravity for water drainage and reduces the channel depth creating thinner cells. The wave-shaped vertical gas flow channel provides horizontal and more efficient coolant flow distribution allowing the reduction of the number of cooling layer.
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