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Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Characterization of New Fuel Qualities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2009
Many standardized tests for evaluating fuel properties have originally been designed for screening straight-run hydrocarbon products. In the case of fuels blended with new components or treated with additives, the traditional test methods may give misleading results. The objective of the work was to evaluate the correlation between the results of standardized testing and of the real-life serviceability of new diesel fuel qualities. Combustion properties, properties affecting exhaust emissions, low-temperature performance and diesel fuel lubricity were studied. The test fuel matrix comprised of typical conventional hydrocarbon diesel fuels, low-emission hydrocarbon fuels, rapeseed and tall oil esters and ethanol-blended diesel fuels. The base fuels were blended with a cetane improver additive and some fuels also with a cold flow improver additive. Combustion and emission tests were carried out with a heavy-duty bus engine and a diesel passenger car.
Technical Paper

Performance of an Advanced Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil

2000-06-19
2000-01-1993
This paper describes the performance of a synthetic diesel engine oil formulated to satisfy the most demanding lubrication requirements of modern heavy-duty diesel engines designed to meet North American and European emission regulations. The combination of an advanced fully synthetic base stock system and a customized additive system has resulted in an SAE 5W-40 oil with unique performance characteristics which include exceptional low and high temperature properties, excellent engine performance in laboratory and field tests, and an independently-documented, measurable fuel economy benefit relative to conventional mineral-based multigrade diesel engine oils. In addition to the cold starting and low volatility benefits derived from the synthetic base stocks, this technology has demonstrated outstanding engine performance in the areas of soot dispersancy, wear protection, engine cleanliness, and oil consumption control.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0989
The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Cooling System Optimization for Euro4 - EPA/02 Heavy Duty Trucks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0964
Euro4 and EPA/02 emission regulations for the European and North American Heavy Duty truck market will require development of high efficiency, low pollution diesel engines. Informations received from main engine, truck manufacturers and literature surveys performed during the past two years shows that several technical solutions are being evaluated in order to reach the required emission levels. These technical solutions can be divided into 3 main groups: 1 Further optimization of fuel combustion including: increase of air to fuel ratio, further retardation of fuel injection timing. 2 Cooled EGR including: high recycled exhaust gas ratios, short EGR loop, compressed and aftercooled EGR. 3 Exhaust gas aftertreatment including: de-NOx catalysts, particle traps, particle afterburning. Different technical solutions will have different impacts on the heat rejection requirements and consequently on the layout and costs of the future cooling systems.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach Analyzing Random Motion Events Between a Machine and its Operator

2000-06-06
2000-01-2160
This paper presents an approach for representing and analyzing random motions and hazardous events in a simulated three-dimensional workplace, providing designers and analysts with a new technique for evaluating operator-machine interaction hazards in virtual environments. Technical data in this paper is based upon a project striving to reduce workers’ risks from being hit by underground mining machinery in a confined space. The project’s methodology includes human factors design considerations, ergonomic modeling and simulation tools, laboratory validation, and collaboration with a mining equipment manufacturer. Hazardous conditions can be analyzed in virtual environments using collision detection. By simulating an operator’s random behavior and machine’s appendage velocity, researchers can accurately identify hazards, and use that information to form safe design parameters for mining equipment.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

2000-06-19
2000-01-2198
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Review of Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

2000-06-19
2000-01-2199
The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine facility is under development. Recent experimental results to be discussed are: the effects of injection timing and diluent addition on late-combustion soot burnout, diesel-spray ignition and premixed-burn behavior, a comparison of the combustion characteristics of M85 (a mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) and DF2 (#2 diesel reference fuel), and a description of our HCCI experimental program and modeling work.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

2000-06-19
2000-01-2200
The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

2000-06-19
2000-01-2209
This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.
Technical Paper

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

2000-06-19
2000-01-2210
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas–fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

2000-06-19
2000-01-2208
Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or download increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchangers for Heavy Vehicles Utilizing High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Foams

2000-06-19
2000-01-2207
Approximately two thirds of the world's energy consumption is wasted as heat. In an attempt to reduce heat losses, heat exchangers are utilized to recover some of the energy. A unique graphite foam developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and licensed to Poco Graphite, Inc., promises to allow for novel, more efficient heat exchanger designs. This graphite foam, Figure 1, has a density between 0.2 and 0.6 g/cm3 and a bulk thermal conductivity between 40 and 187 W/m·K. Because the foam has a very accessible surface area (> 4 m2/g) and is open celled, the overall heat transfer coefficients of foam-based heat exchangers can be up to two orders of magnitude greater than conventional heat exchangers. As a result, foam-based heat exchangers could be dramatically smaller and lighter.
Technical Paper

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

2000-06-19
2000-01-2214
Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.
Technical Paper

Estimation of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of road vehicles by computer simulation and their validation by field measurements

2001-09-23
2001-24-0082
The paper concerns field measurements for validation of the simulation method VEMOSIM developed in Finland. The field measurements and their analyses were carried out in the following order: - Quantification of; - drive resistance coefficients by coasting; and - power train losses by acceleration; - Utilization of parameters quantified in computer simulation of fuel consumption; - Based on the drive resistance coefficients and power train losses one can use VEMOSIM and produce the fuel consumption amounts of vehicle drives on the test road sections, and finally; - Comparison of the results received from simulation with the ones received from field measurements. The test vehicle was a truck trailer combination with 7 axles and the mass was 61,060 kg. The simulated results (speed and fuel consumption) are in a very good agreement with the measured ones taking into account the inaccuracy of the input data of the road vertical alignment.
Technical Paper

Development of Indigenous Automatic Load Sensing Valve

2001-01-10
2001-26-0036
Braking of automotive vehicles is facilitated by the adhesion between the tyre and the ground. Braking forces generated at the wheels of a vehicle have to be appropriately matched to this adhesion. Load Sensing Valve(LSV) is one of the devices used to achieve this objective. An Automatic Load Sensing Valve (ALSV) is developed which can be used in the Air Brake system of commercial vehicles. Considering the typical Indian operating conditions (compared to European and American environment) for commercial vehicles, it was necessary to collect ‘customer voices’ to finalise minimum as well as desirable product features for the valve. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was used to convert these customer voices into design specifications. Benchmarking of several similar products was done. This has resulted in a product which is having not only the minimum features found in a similar contemporary international product but also meets the typical requirements of Indian customers.
Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Regulations for Agricultural Tractor Engines

2001-01-10
2001-26-0007
After a review of current and future emission legislation for non-road engines (India, Europe, USA), the various options available to reduce the emissions of diesel tractor engines are discussed. Special emphasis is put on naturally aspirated engines in the 37 - 50 kW power range. AVL has recently designed and developed several naturally aspirated heavy-duty diesel tractor engines to comply with current exhaust emissions standards for the Indian domestic and the US markets (EPA Tier 2). In doing so, different levels of technologies were applied. Their impact on mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption and emissions will be shown. The future non-road engine exhaust emissions legislation in different markets will be addressed (India, Europe and USA). Compliance with the new emission standards will require the introduction of more advanced technology.
Technical Paper

Application of Non-Square Matrix Simulation Technique in Accelerated Life Evaluation of Vehicle

2001-01-10
2001-26-0048
Accelerated life evaluation of vehicle has become the order of the day with the continuously decreasing development time for product development. With the rapid progress in the computer aided design area, today it is possible to feed-in virtual test tracks so that even before a prototype is made, a life estimate could be arrived at. Further, the advent of rapid prototyping has also resulted in reducing the time required for development of prototypes considerably. This has put the proving engineers under tremendous pressure in reducing the time required for design validation. This has resulted in a number of techniques being developed for reducing number of tests required as well as test duration in validation of the prototypes. One such technique is non-square matrix simulation. This technique can also be used for the investigation of failures and validation of the modifications.
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