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Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Pillar Cavity Foam Block Effect on Interior Noise Using SEA

1999-05-17
1999-01-1701
Closed cell foam has been used for filling vehicle pillar cavities at select locations to block road noise transmitted through pillars. In the past, most pillar foam implementations in vehicle programs were driven by subjective improvements in interior sound. In this study road test results are used to correlate a detailed CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) model based on the statistical energy analysis method. Noise reduction characteristics of pillar with a number of foam block fillings were then studied using the CAE model. The CAE models provided means to model and understand the mechanism of noise energy flow through pillar cavities. A number of insightful conclusions were obtained as result of the study.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the In Vehicle Performance of Expandable Sealants Used As Acoustic Baffles

1999-05-17
1999-01-1687
Chemically and heat reactive, expandable sealants are used as “acoustical baffles” in the automotive industry. These acoustic baffles are used to impede noise, water and dust propagation inside of structural components and body cavities. Use of these sealant materials has grown significantly as the demands to improve vehicle acoustic performance has increased. Various test methods have been developed to quantify the performance of these materials through direct comparison of material samples. These investigations use standardized testing procedures to characterize the acoustic performance of a material sample on the basis of controlled laboratory test conditions. This paper presents a step in the progression of evaluating acoustic baffle performance in the vehicle. Standard experimental techniques are used to investigate the influence of the baffles on the vehicle acoustic performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Rattle: Understanding Root Sources and Testing Methods

1999-05-17
1999-01-1729
This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Developing Robust Vibration Excitation and Control Methods for Evaluating Rattle Noise in Automotive Components

1999-05-17
1999-01-1725
The authors participated in a task force that was required to develop a repeatable, dependable, and reliable test procedure to compare, rate, and evaluate the severity of rattles. The assemblies involved in the study are designed and manufactured by different companies and are tested by different people on test equipment and instrumentation from different suppliers. The challenges therefore, were considerable and involved both the vibration inputs and responses as well as the acoustic responses. At the beginning of this activity, it was observed that different test labs using the same Ford vibration specs were obtaining different sounds from the same test item! Clearly, this was unacceptable and the test methods had to be improved and standardized. This paper focuses on vibration related to rattle testing. The particular assemblies used in this study were seat belt retractors.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of Impedance and Ripple Tests for Automotive Pumps

1999-05-17
1999-01-1715
Pumps are usually tested for performance and efficiency as well as other pump characteristics. With the increased awareness of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the automotive industry, new standardized tests have evolved for testing pumps. Two major tests are the impedance and ripple tests. Information collected on these signatures of pumps is vital for the success of any Fluid Born Noise (FBN) analysis of these important components and the system in which they function. The purpose of this paper is to study the repeatability and reproducibility of such tests for the same pump. Production variability will be found when pumps of the same ‘category’ or part number are tested. The information presented here is important for the generalization of these tests and establishing them as a part of the research, development and design process. A set of pumps commonly used in the vehicle is put to the test.
Technical Paper

Accessory Drive Belt Pulley Entry Friction Study and Belt Chirp Noise

1999-05-17
1999-01-1709
Accessory belt “chirp” noise is a major quality issue in the automotive and truck industry. Chirp noise control is often achieved by very tight pulley alignment, a guideline being .33 degree maximum belt entry angle into each grooved pulley. Occasionally belts will chirp at pulleys where the system alignment is this good or better. This study offers an explanation for such occurrences. This is a study to see if fundament groove side sticking theory correlates with the belt entry angle, and how the coefficient of friction relates to this entry angle. The study combines theory with lab data. In summary, the study fundamentally links the coefficient of friction of the belt to the belt chirp noise phenomenon, and allows the projection of a belt's general tendency to chirp to be predicted by the measurement of belt coefficient of friction on a test stand.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Valve Train Noise for the Sound Quality of I. C. Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1711
The dynamic behavior of an OHC valve train system of a spark ignition engine is investigated to characterize the source and transmission of the valve train (VT) vibration and noise and to improve the VT design for better sound quality. The spectral properties of vibration caused by highly transient dynamics of VT system are characterized for the high frequency ranges over 3 kHz, although the overall sound pressure level due to the VT is negligible [1, 2]. For the analysis of valve train a lumped parameter model with 4 d.o.f.'s is developed and validated with the experimental results from a test rig. Experiments are performed on the test rig to measure the valve acceleration, the surface vibration of cylinder head during the operation, and the transfer functions. Also a measurement of cylinder head vibration in a real vehicle has been performed to correlate with the rig test results.
Technical Paper

SJ30-2 High Performance Business Jet Development: A Prototype Based Approach

1999-04-20
1999-01-1593
The SJ30-2 is a high performance, entry level business jet with the design goal of offering performance superior to other aircraft in its class. Critical data were obtained and evaluated early in the development program through flight and structural testing of a prototype aircraft. Prototype testing helped to achieve aggressive design goals and minimized potential design changes for the globally located manufacturing team. This prototype based approach reduced the program schedule risk in the production and certification phase.
Technical Paper

FTIMS/2000™ A Strategic Flight Test Management Solution

1999-04-20
1999-01-1600
For many years manufacturer’s had to devote considerable work to demonstrate that an aircraft met the specific requirements. The indicator of credibility lies primarily in the award of Type Certification, marked by a Certification of Airworthiness. Since flight test engineering accounts for a major portion of aircraft manufacturer’s controllable cost; the implementation of structured methods and advanced operational procedures will yield the most dramatic single cost savings. The FTIMS/2000™ seamlessly links a complex array of strategic flight test business processes into a logical flow and is used as a true management tool. It is one of the only systems of its kind and is recognized by major aerospace corporations worldwide.
Technical Paper

Design Study to Reduce the Single Engine Minimum Control Speed of the SJ30-2 Twin-Engine Business Jet

1999-04-20
1999-01-1601
A 500 pound (2.2 kN) increase in takeoff thrust per engine was predicted to increase the SJ30-2’s single engine minimum control speed (VMCA) to 109 knots (201.9 km/hr). To meet runway performance goals, VMCA had to be pushed below 97 knots (179.6 km/hr). Six types of vertical tail and rudder modifications were investigated analytically. Two vertical tail modifications and three ventral rudder configurations were tested in the wind tunnel. The tunnel showed 30° of ventral rudder deflection would reduce VMCA over 16 knots. Flight tests showed the deflected ventral rudder reduced measured VMCA speeds from 7.2 knots (13.9 km/hr) to 11.6 knots (21.5 km/hr). Other flight test techniques showed ventral rudder effectiveness to exceed that measured in the tunnel. In light of these results, a ventral rudder bias system has been incorporated into the production SJ30-2 design to assist the pilot during single engine events.
Technical Paper

Detection of Icing and Related Loss of Control Effectiveness in Regional and Corporate Aircraft

1999-04-20
1999-01-1583
This paper presents a method of detecting aircraft icing by monitoring its effects on aircraft dynamics. This paper shows that uncontrolled icing on control surfaces directly influences control effectiveness. Using data from onboard attitude and navigation sensors via highly computationally efficient algorithms, the control effectiveness is estimated, thereby detecting icing. Using actual flight test data from NASA Lewis Research Center, this paper demonstrates the ability of this method to detect the loss of elevator effectiveness that occurs with uncontrolled horizontal stabilizer icing that could result from a failed deicing boot. The method is generally applicable to loss of control effectiveness due to icing. Icing affects the aerodynamic performance of aircraft by contaminating the aerodynamic surfaces. Without anti-icing equipment icing, if sufficiently severe, can relatively quickly lead to a situation in which controllable flight is impossible.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Advantages of a New Polypropylene Absorbing Material

1999-05-17
1999-01-1669
Sound absorption is one way to control noise in automotive passenger compartments. Fibrous or porous materials absorb sound in a cavity by dissipating energy associated with a propagating sound wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of a cotton fiber absorbing material in comparison to a new polypropylene fibrous material, called ECOSORB ®. The acoustical evaluation was done using measurements of material properties along with sound pressure level from road testing of a fully-assembled vehicle. The new polypropylene fibrous material showed significant advantages over the cotton fiber materials in material properties testing and also in-vehicle measurements. In addition to the performance benefits, the polypropylene absorber provided weight savings over the cotton fiber material.
Technical Paper

Intake/ Exhaust Noise Reduction with Rig Test Optimization – Case Studies

1999-05-17
1999-01-1660
The study employed the rig test method for the intake/exhaust noise investigation by using shaker. This article describes two case studies including 1.2 liter minivan and a 250 c.c. motorcycle. For the minivan case, it was verified that along with the reduction of 5∼8 dB(A) of intake noise the interior noise was also improved using the rig test optimization result. For the motorcycle case, It was found that there was very good correlation of the exhaust noise measured among the engine dynamometer, road test and rig test after the temperature effect was compensated. Hence, the study chose the rig test as a development tool to get prompt NVH evaluation results on the different exhaust pipe lengths and keep the development time schedule. From the results, it is concluded that the simple and cheap rig test evaluation technique is vital and a very effective tool to achieve the vehicle NVH development goal.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Bearing Wear and Its Influence Upon Bearing Performance Based on Elastohydrodynamic Analysis

1999-05-03
1999-01-1522
This paper reports attempts to gain better understanding of the influence of bearing wear on the performance of hydrodynamically lubricated bearings. An analysis was carried out on bearings from a Sapphire bearing test rig using an elastohydrodynamic model. This involved the use of both the original and worn bearing surface profiles. The results indicated that bearing wear could improve the lubrication conditions. Also the progress of wear in the bearing was simulated using a simple model of the wear process. This model predicted that the wear would progress at a reducing rate. The predicted wear agreed well with measurements both in terms of the wear profile and the location of wear.
Technical Paper

A Method to Measure Air Conditioning Refrigerant Contributions to Vehicle Evaporative Emissions (SHED Test)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1539
Although the intent of the SHED test (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination) is to measure evaporative fuel losses, the SHED sampling methodology in fact measures hydrocarbons from all vehicle and test equipment sources. Leakage of air conditioning (AC) refrigerant is one possible non-fuel source contributing to the SHED hydrocarbon measurement. This report describes a quick and relatively simple method to identify the contribution of AC refrigerant to the SHED analyzer reading. R134A (CH2FCF3), the hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant used in all current automotive AC systems, as well as its predecessor, the chlorofluorocarbon R12, can be detected using the gas chromatography methods currently in place at many emissions labs for the speciation of exhaust and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

Neural Network-Based Diesel Engine Emissions Prediction Using In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure

1999-05-03
1999-01-1532
This paper explores the feasibility of using in-cylinder pressure-based variables to predict gaseous exhaust emissions levels from a Navistar T444 direct injection diesel engine through the use of neural networks. The networks were trained using in-cylinder pressure derived variables generated at steady state conditions over a wide speed and load test matrix. The networks were then validated on previously “unseen” real-time data obtained from the Federal Test Procedure cycle through the use of a high speed digital signal processor data acquisition system. Once fully trained, the DSP-based system developed in this work allows the real-time prediction of NOX and CO2 emissions from this engine on a cycle-by-cycle basis without requiring emissions measurement.
Technical Paper

The CRC Port Fuel Injector Bench Test Method, Interlaboratory Study, and Vehicle Test Correlation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1548
Port-fuel-injection (PFI) problems were first reported late in 1984. Deposits that formed on the tip of the pintle-type injectors of certain engines restricted fuel flow and caused driveability and emission problems. Responding to this problem, industry test programs were initiated to reproduce the deposits under controlled conditions. In 1986, a vehicle test procedure was identified and the automotive industry recommended a pass/fail performance level. Building upon available information, the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC) Port Fuel Injector Deposit Group developed a standard vehicle test procedure to evaluate various unleaded gasolines for port-fuel-injection fouling. The vehicle test procedure was adopted as an ASTM test method. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of California accepted the procedure as the standard for measuring a gasoline's propensity to form deposits in a pintle-type injector.
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