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Technical Paper

Recycling Potential of Polymers

1996-04-01
91A123
In order to reduce the volume of waste in general and of shredder waste from the disposal of scrap cars, the German Federal Government has prepared a draft regulation, which will be implemented unless the automotive industry and the distributors of imported cars take action on their own to achieve these objectives. The regulation provides that the car manufacturers are fully responsible for the environmentally controlled disposal of scrap cars. The return of scrap cars to the work industry must be free of change for the last owner. A nation-wide network for the return of scrap cars must be implemented by end of 1993. To reduce the amount of shredder waste the automotive industry is expected to practice recycling on non-metallic materials. Facilities required for thermal treatment of residues, which cannot be recycled, are to be installed on account of the originator, i.e. the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Recycling Automobiles: a Problem of Environment and Resources

1996-04-01
91A130
The socio-economic system is coming to the conclusion that the environment will no longer tolerate and absorb all of man's interventions, and that natural resources no longer constitute a cheap and inexhaustible source of wealth. In this scenario of the limits of nature and ever-increasing environmental costs, we are faced with the problem of recovering and reusing the materials which go into the manufacture of an automobile. The replacement of metal materials with polymer materials leads to a reduction in the re-usable waste, and to an increase in the amount of waste with no economic value, or even with a negative economic value. The use of the non-ferrous and non-aluminous materials in an automobile is beyond the capabilities of new techniques for scrapping automobiles, which means that at the end of their lives, the automobiles must be disassembled, sorted on the basis of the constitute materials, recovered and recycled.
Technical Paper

The Modeling of Mold Filling in Structural Reaction Injection Molding

1996-04-01
91A118
The main use of FRC in automobiles, with the exception of a few specialized low volume vehicles, has been until now in semistructural parts. One of the most promising process in development today, that may play major role in future structural composite fabrication, is based on SRIM technology. The rapid and extensive introduction of this process goes also through the development of deeper theoretical knowledge of the process and the development of computer simulation to aid mold design and choice of proper processing parameters. To contribute SRIM advancement, a preliminary model has been developed for viscosity changes, extent of the reaction and temperature rises, associated with the mold filling stage, as well as a simple software to evaluate the pressure drop through different combinations of reinforcements.
Technical Paper

Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites Obtained By Indirect Squeeze-Casting

1996-04-01
91A115
Indirect squeeze casting technology is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques of near net shape components constituted by aluminum matrix composite (AMC) materials. AMCs reinforced with both continuous and discontinuous ceramic elements have been mainly produced by infiltration of porous preforms. Nevertheless, a further promising production route offered by this technique is given by the possibility to employ ingots of pre-reinforced aluminum alloys containing ceramic particles (silicon carbide or alumina); ingots are remelted and, under suitable operative conditions, high quality composite castings of simple and complex shape are produced by squeeze casting. The present paper describes the results of an extensive experimental work carried out by Alures-Centro Tecnico Porcessi on a pilot plant scale employing a vertical squeeze casting machine with a clamping force of 315 tons.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical Behavior and Wear Resistance of Whisker Or Particle Reinforced Ceramics

1996-04-01
91A107
Ceramic composite materials have been intensively studied during the last years. Particles and whisker reinforcement have shown the simultaneous advantage to allow the preparation of composite materials by conventional processing and to lead, when under optimum conditions, to dramatic toughening and strengthening. Since wear resistance of brittle material have been shown to be related to both hardness and toughness, composite materials with improved were resistance have been developed for cutting tools or bearing applications. However the mechanism responsible for toughening is of major important for wear resistance effectiveness. We have therefore reviewed the main mechanisms before presenting some examples of composites materials for wear resistance applications.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Glasses for Automotive

1996-04-01
91A109
The windows of a vehicle have to satisfy the following driver and passenger needs concerning visibility and climate perception both related to active safety: transparency, reluctance, dazzling, glare and diffused light (scattering). All functions are related to visibility and so to the optics of glazing, solar control, deicing, defogging, demisting. The task of material science is to find the multifunctional glasses solving simultaneously problems of visibility, safety and comfort. Particular kind of glasses, colored, wired, coated, electrochromic, liquid crystal, photochromic can be already considered solutions which can operate passively or actively. The example of passive solar control and active heatable coated glasses is shown as a possible practical multifunctional glass very soon.
Technical Paper

Manufacture of Automotive Components By Semi-Liquid Forming Process

1996-04-01
91A113
Semi-liquid forming process, applied to pressure die-casting, permits to obtain low cost components with high qualitative characteristics and adequate mechanical performances. The technology is based on the employment of material with globular microstructure (flow-cast alloys) obtained subjecting a metal alloy at the time of solidification to an elevated shear rate. Such microstructure permits the accomplishment of conventional forming processes at temperatures in solidification range. The particular fluid-dynamic properties of the semi-liquid slurry and the lower injection temperature allow to obtain casting with improved soundness, without need of impregnation, and to extend die life. The present work describes the Weber (Magneti Marelli) activity of the process industrialization and some applications for the manufacture of automotive components.
Technical Paper

Reliability Improvement of Automotive Components By Surface Modification

1996-04-01
91A104
In this paper, several detailed studies on the surface properties of coatings are explained in order to make function of surface modification become more effective. As surface coatings, eletroless nickel plating, organic thin film, nitriding and antireflection coating by ultra fine particles are examined. Discussion of optimum production conditions and surface conditions for each coating is introduced.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Us Automobile Materials: a Conundrum for Advanced Materials

1996-04-01
91A090
This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

U.S. and California Vehicle Emissions Control Programs Effectiveness and Application of Experience

1988-03-01
871148
Many areas of the world are in various stages of development which frequently includes a rapid increase in the motor vehicle population. As a result, some areas are beginning to show the effect of increased motor vehicle use on air pollution. The vehicle's contribution to California's air pollution has long been recognized and studied, and measures have been implemented to reduce emissions from motor vehicles. The history of light duty vehicle emission control in the South Coast Air Basin of California is reviewed. Emission reductions achieved, current levels, projected future emissions and the need for further emissions reductions from light duty vehicles are discussed. For other areas of the world where motor vehicles contribute to air pollution, suggestions are made which can improve the effectiveness of emission control efforts; which should be consistent with political and economic realities, and efforts to achieve international harmonization of standards.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Bending Strength and Errors of Helical Gear

1988-03-01
871223
CORRELATION OF BENDING STRENGTH AND ERRORS OF HELICAL GEAR has not been clarified sufficiently even now. As the investigation by using only experimental method is not sufficient and so the analytical method of obtaining gear bending strength has been developed by one of the authors. Hence, the correlation of bending strength and errors, especially in the aspect of the direction of pressure angle error and tooth trace error, is clarified by this analytical method which was verified by some experiments. And by further investigations, it is confirmed that the helical gear is tougher against the negative pressure angle error, and the fine module gear is sensitive against the errors.
Technical Paper

Development of STORM Series Diesel Engine (D1146, D1146T, D2366, D2366T)

1988-03-01
871218
For the purpose of satisfying today's market demands, new 8 and 11 liter diesel engines, named "STORM" series, have been developed and moved into production in 1986. Based on the predecessors which have been produced since 1975, the development of the STORM series aimed high performance, low emission, long life-time and low operating costs. In order to consult customers' convenience, exchangeability of engine parts and commonality of vehicle installations with the former engines had to be maintained. This paper describes the development work of STORM engines, and the design aspects and performance characteristics of these engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Analysis of Strength of All-Ceramic Swirl Chamber for Diesel Engines

1988-03-01
871205
An all-ceramic swirl chamber has been developed and analyses and evaluations concerning the strength of silicon nitride ceramic (Si3N4) have been performed with a view to using it for the entire internal wall surface of the swirl chamber. The strength characteristics of Si3N4 and their effect and variation have been determined. On the basis of measurements and analyses of thermal stresses, assembling stresses, etc., investigation of the most suitable construction and assembling methods to reduce load stresses on ceramic, and various kinds of duration tests, the swirl chamber has been confirmed to have the required durability. This engine was found to comply with the 1987 U.S. diesel particulate regulation.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the In Vehicle Performance of Expandable Sealants Used As Acoustic Baffles

1999-05-17
1999-01-1687
Chemically and heat reactive, expandable sealants are used as “acoustical baffles” in the automotive industry. These acoustic baffles are used to impede noise, water and dust propagation inside of structural components and body cavities. Use of these sealant materials has grown significantly as the demands to improve vehicle acoustic performance has increased. Various test methods have been developed to quantify the performance of these materials through direct comparison of material samples. These investigations use standardized testing procedures to characterize the acoustic performance of a material sample on the basis of controlled laboratory test conditions. This paper presents a step in the progression of evaluating acoustic baffle performance in the vehicle. Standard experimental techniques are used to investigate the influence of the baffles on the vehicle acoustic performance.
Technical Paper

The Transformation of Recycled Painted Fascias for use in Automotive Acoustical Applications

1999-05-17
1999-01-1678
Substantial activity in the field of recycling has made industry increasingly aware of the need to find novel ways of reusing post industrial and post consumer waste to produce useful products for our markets. The traditional approaches have been to use the scrap material as is into the original markets targeted for virgin materials, and finding areas that can accept the resultant downgraded properties. This approach has created difficulties in the recycling of automotive painted thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) fascia and trim products. The presence of the paint contaminant has substantially degraded the physical properties of the plastic. This paper reviews the use of painted TPO scrap as a raw material for automotive sound barrier applications whereby the inherent material characteristics of TPO are capitalized on. The material modifications and functional characteristics as they relate to this application are described.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
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