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White Paper

The Use of Imaging for Powder Metal Characterization and Contamination Identification

2018-04-05
WP-0008
As AM technologies are being used with higher frequencywithin the automotive and aerospace industries, the interest in powder characterization and contaminant identification is growing—especially for suppliers looking to gain entry into these highly regulated industries. Standards for powder materials and methods used for aerospace applications are still be developed, and regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration have been requesting that standards be developed as guidance for the industry. Methods such as CCSEM and HLS could be viable options for suppliers needing to adhere to a powder specification by demonstrating compliance. Solutions exist to integrate such methods into a production environment as exemplified by RJ Lee Group.
Solution Notes

Drilling Material Stacks: Can it be both automated and affordable?

2017-06-26
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
Tech Insights

Repairing Composites

2017-08-09
TI-0001
As the aerospace industry continues on its quest for ever-increased efficiency, so goes the quest for ever-more composite content on aircraft. And with it, more opportunities to repair it. Typical composite panel fiber reinforcements are carbon, aramid, and fiberglass. The machining techniques for these typical composite materials are similar, but minor differences exist, such as the style of cutting tool or drill bit. Automated drilling methods that may be used during original manufacture are rarely used in typical composite repair situations.
Technical Paper

Speed adaptation system for vehicles using RF communication

2000-06-12
2000-05-0380
This paper introduces a speed adaptation system using roadside-to-vehicle RF communication. The RF transmitter transmits transmitter''s ID, speed limit, message to the drivers. The messages include occurrence of accident, freezing road, existence of gas station, or construction on the road, etc. At present, drivers identify the speed limit from speed sign board. But drivers cannot concentrate his attention continuously on finding speed sign board, so over speed takes place unintentionally. And one of current information medium to the drivers is variable message sign board (VMS) showing the present road status such as severe congestion, occurrence of accident, or heavy rain. But due to high installation cost of VMS, insufficient number of VMS units are installed on the road. So timely notification of traffic accident to the following drivers is impossible now. Our system is low cost to be installed at close intervals on the highway.
Technical Paper

The role of government in the change from national to supranational legislation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0384
As a result of the modification of the 58th Geneva Agreement in 1995, which invited non-European countries to join the Agreement, a process of harmonization of the compulsory-compliance standards in the automobile sector is taking place, to the detriment of the particular laws of each country. The number of countries involved in this process grows year by year. At the moment, governments must make new legislation reconcile the interest of their countries, derived from their particular problems, with the interest of all the other countries involved. This process entails long negotiations, due to the existence of sometimes conflicting interest, defended by the different governments and manufacturers and consumers organizations.
Technical Paper

Study on Intelligent Idling Stop System

2000-06-12
2000-05-0365
The “idling stop” of the vehicle, which is defined as no rotation of the engine when it stops, theoretically brings to reduce the fuel consumption (i.e. carbon dioxide) and the exhaust emissions. However, the idling stop practically has weak points as follows: 1. When the engine is restarted, much fuel is consumed. 2. When the engine is restarted, much the exhaust emissions are discharged. 3. While various electric devices work, the load of the battery is high. 4. The deterioration of the lubricating oil proceeds due to repeating start and stop. In order to overcome the above weak points the authors propose the new system called IISS.
Technical Paper

A forward collision warning an avoidance algorithm

2000-06-12
2000-05-0366
The number of automobiles is rapidly increasing, as are the importance of the car as a way of transportation, and the variety of its uses. In these environments, a safety, one of the primary factors, which must be considered in automotive engineering, demands a system that aids the driver''s perception, in addition to the existing passive method, which relies on just man''s ability. In this point of view, development of the promoted system that complements the passive safety devices is demanded. A system like this should make driving safe and satisfy the need for comfort, while decreasing the driver''s burden and fatigue. The object of this paper is the development of an algorithm that warns the collision ahead and avoids this situation, using some information about the host-car, target-car, surroundings, road conditions, etc. The warning system is developed using a decision algorithm of the degree of safety. To show the validity system based on our safety algorithm.
Technical Paper

STUDY ON DIRECT UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST GAS IN DIESEL GENERATOR AS ENERGY SOURCE OF ABSORPTION REFRIGERATOR

2000-06-12
2000-05-0345
Energy losses often occured in the industrial processes. The losses are sometimes substantial, but neglected. To overcome the matter, people should consider how to eliminate or at least to reduce the losses. In the energy management program, some methods are done to conserve energy. One of the methods is utilization of exhaust gas for another process. this paper analizes the possibility of direct utilization of exhaust gas in diesel-generator as energy source of absorption refrigerator. Analysis is based on the need of heat energy on the absorption refrigeration system and the capacity of exhaust gas. As the result, the capacity of the exhaust gas meets requirement of the heat energy required for absorption refrigerator. The analysis is also considered on the economic aspect. From the analysis, it can be summerized that the exhaust gas of diesel-generator is feasible as energy source of absorption refrigerator.
Technical Paper

Development of cabin air filter with aldehyde capture function

2000-06-12
2000-05-0343
Aldehydes are the cause of sick house syndrome or chemical sensitivity and have harmful influences for human beings. In the cabin of vehicle, aldehydes which are included in the volatilization gas from the interior materials, DE emission gas in intake air, cigarette smoke and so on spoil the comfortableness. Active carbon, which has been used as an adsorbent, shows an excellent removal efficiency for most of the gas components by physical adsorption. But for aldehydes, it has difficulty because aldehydes are hard to be adsorbed physically. We have developed new aldehydes adsorbent undergoing addition reaction with gaseous aldehydes on its surface. Aldehydes capture material (ACM) make use of the chemical reaction using a resorcin as a reagent and an H-type zeolite as a water-containing support, and active hydrogen is used as a catalyst to promote the reaction. In addition, we have applied ACM to cabin air filter (CAF) of vehicle.
Technical Paper

The development of vibration transmissivity calculation of full-foam seat cushions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0351
Full-foam-type seat cushion for vehicle is made of such elements as panel, foam pad, and surface seat and each element individually effects on dynamic vibration comfort performance during riding. The most important requirement is to reduce resonance magnification of seat close to 6 Hz, which is the natural frequency of the human body''s internal organs. Conventionally, the prediction of the resonance frequency characteristics of the seat cushion is seldom done by calculation at design stage before evaluation of prototype test. This paper reports that it becomes possible to predict vibration property of seat cushion at design stage by solving vibration equation, which is obtained by replacing seat cushion structure with vibration system model having spring element and damping element equivalent to designed seat cushion and by making graph of resonance frequency characteristics using calculation program provided in this paper.
Technical Paper

Study to improve recycle engineering by unifying material of interior trimming parts

2000-06-12
2000-05-0358
PP (Polypropylene) has been used by approximately 50% of the entire resin for vehicle bodies. By unifying PP grade of interior trimming parts which mainly uses PP, to one type, the goal of this study is to achieve the following; (1) improvement of material recycling, (2) efficient parts development (3) material cost reduction. In molding trimming parts, the suppliers use PP of different grades, and different pigments are colored and compounded for vehicle model, grade, model years. So the material combinations are numberless. These various material combinations caused a great loss in the process from producing materials to manufacturing parts, and made the material recycling of waste plastics difficult. At first, Subaru selected one kind of PP grade, talc grade, and pigment for one color, then fused and mixed three components in injection molding.
Technical Paper

Truck recycling: Environmental-friendly guidelines

2000-06-12
2000-05-0357
Transport is a fundamental aspect of community prosperity and it is closely connected to its development. Transport plays an essential role among the production cycles of a nation, and the commercial vehicle (trucks or buses) makes it possible to become true. From the days when commercial vehicles first appeared, to the early ''80s, main research themes were those intended to increase "productivity" and "profitability." In the ''80s a new and common ecological awareness had induced the industrial sector, and specially motor vehicle manufacturers to try reducing atmosphere and water pollution effects as much as possible. Starting with the ''80s, new needs have appeared in addition to the "usual" ones, entailing entirely new research trends for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Clonk Phenomenon - a Load Change Reaction to be Balanced in Terms of Comfort and Engine Response

2000-06-12
2000-05-0327
The customers demand of a good vehicle agility consists of a quick reaction of the vehicle with the actuation of the throttle pedal on one hand and a high comfort level of vibration and noise within the vehicle on the other hand, which means the reduction of disturbing side effects. In order to achieve a satisfactory compromise it is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the complex, high dynamic vibrations system “vehicle / drive train”. For several years the ika has been carrying out such detailed vehicle investigations and test bench measurements in addition to comprehensive CAE analysis for various research projects in partnership with different vehicle manufacturers.
Technical Paper

A study of the aging of photocatalysts

2000-06-12
2000-05-0323
To reduce cold-start emissions that is a bottleneck of tightened regulation, a photocatalyst was suggested and studied. Conventional TWC can reduce more than 96% of harmful emissions after the activation, but under a cold-start condition it needs a lot of energy to activate. During the activation time (light-off time) harmful gases are exhausted without any purification and it makes the conventional TWC difficult to satisfy tightened regulation. A photocatalyst can be activated by light that has wavelengths lower than 380 nano-meters. The activation needs no time and loss of energy like a TWC. To apply the photocatalyst on a vehicle aftertreatment a photocatalyst system was suggested that uses non-thermal plasma as a light source of photocatalyst. The durability of a photocatalyst was also studied with hydrothermal aging method. The properties of aged catalyst were tested with surface area, phase transformation and conversion efficiency of HC.
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

2000-06-12
2000-05-0308
This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

A development of diesel oxidation catalyst and the evaluation of its performance characteristic

2000-06-12
2000-05-0287
The new concept oxidation for diesel engine has been developed. It has been designed to use under circumstances of the "dry condition" of exhausted emission, which indicates low soluble organics and high dry soot concentration under high exhaust gas temperature. For the reliability and performance of catalysts in dry condition, several design concepts were established. First of all, extremely low sulfate formation on catalyst at high temperature conditions, and an improved soluble organic burning characteristics was required. A minimization of deposition of the particulate component, especially sulfate, was obtained from the adjustment of washcoat loading and material property. Six different types of catalysts have been prepared and tested in a laboratory. Diesel vehicle test showed the possibility that soluble organic could be removed mostly with minimal sulfate formation.
Technical Paper

Development in Sidewall Reinforced Run-Flat Tire

2000-06-12
2000-05-0284
Despite the disadvantages in aspects of ride comfort due to the thick sidewall, sidewall reinforced run-flat tires, compared to other types of run-flat tires, have more advantages in use of commercially available rim, easy assembly of tire and rim and manufacturing processibility. In this paper, the design concepts and problems encountered in the development of sidewall reinforced run-flat tires are studied. The condition of no internal air pressure under the vertical load induces the severe bending force on the sidewalls of the tire. To develop the sidewall reinforcing rubber compound and the sidewall construction to support this bending force efficiently are the core concerns for designing the sidewall reinforced run-flat tire. The bending force also causes a problem of bead unseating from the rim. In addition to that, another problem is how to solve the manufacturing process problems which come from thicker sidewall compared to the standard tires.
Technical Paper

Wheel disk manufacture using Nb-bearing TRIP steels

2000-06-12
2000-05-0285
TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels have been studied frequently because of its superior strength and ductility. The high values of tensile strength and elongation are mainly attributed to the strain induce martensite transformation (SIMT) phenomena of retained austenite. Because of the excellent tensile property combination, TRIP steels have many advantages when the steels are used for automotive applications. To produce as-hot-rolled TRIP steels with better microstructure and mechanical properties, an appropriate chemical composition together with the exact control of cooling in run-out table is major parameter. A 3-step cooling pattern in run-out table (ROT) should be employed to secure sufficient amount of ferrite and resultant carbon enrichment in untransformed austenite. Effective carbon enrichment in untransformed austenite is very important to increase stability of austenite in lower temperature region.
Technical Paper

Simulation of airbag deploying process

2000-06-12
2000-05-0275
Recently, with increasing demand of safer airbag design and meeting with new US Regulation (FMVSS 208), efficiency of design and experiment on Crash Safety field is strongly needed. This paper explains results of applying CAE method to simulate stress on Front Glass and injuries at out-of-position (OOP) occupant when airbag deploys. Modeling of Front Glass and Airbag, applying of MADYMO dummies, and using Fluid-Structure Code showed relatively good co-relation with CAE and test results. At Front Glass stress simulation, stress distribution mode on the Glass and stress time history on certain points are close with test results. This method will be useful to predict how much stress will be changed on new vehicle that has different layout of Instrument Panel and passenger Airbag. At OOP dummy injury simulation, Head and Chest injuries at AF5 on driver side and 3-year-old passenger side are relatively close in tendency with test results.
Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
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