Protection of surfaces is a critical factor in determining the extended service life of a structure in polluted and aggressive environments. In particular, a rapid growth of the technology for the protecting coating of cold rolled steel is experienced, for the use in transport, electric housewares, building and industrial plants. Numerous changes have taken place in the production of zinc coatings on steel in order to improve the corrosion resistance using zinc alloy platings. Our research group collected from the international production a number of selected galvanized steel samples, including electrodeposited zinc alloys, multilayer coatings, hot dip galvanized steels. On the selected materials we established and analyzed morphology, composition, crystal structure, impurity content and distribution, using many surface microanalysis techniques.
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Ceramic composite materials have been intensively studied during the last years. Particles and whisker reinforcement have shown the simultaneous advantage to allow the preparation of composite materials by conventional processing and to lead, when under optimum conditions, to dramatic toughening and strengthening. Since wear resistance of brittle material have been shown to be related to both hardness and toughness, composite materials with improved were resistance have been developed for cutting tools or bearing applications. However the mechanism responsible for toughening is of major important for wear resistance effectiveness. We have therefore reviewed the main mechanisms before presenting some examples of composites materials for wear resistance applications.
The windows of a vehicle have to satisfy the following driver and passenger needs concerning visibility and climate perception both related to active safety: transparency, reluctance, dazzling, glare and diffused light (scattering). All functions are related to visibility and so to the optics of glazing, solar control, deicing, defogging, demisting. The task of material science is to find the multifunctional glasses solving simultaneously problems of visibility, safety and comfort. Particular kind of glasses, colored, wired, coated, electrochromic, liquid crystal, photochromic can be already considered solutions which can operate passively or actively. The example of passive solar control and active heatable coated glasses is shown as a possible practical multifunctional glass very soon.
The following paper describes the experimental activity regarding the setting-up and characterization of a car engine bracket in Al-Si12Cu2FeZn-F alloy produced by the new technology squeeze casting. LExperimentation was carried out at the Alures squeeze casting pilot plant. Static and dynamic characterization (fatigue resistance on test samples and the component itself) was carried out at Teksid and Fiat Auto. Characterization test have demonstrated the considerable advantages offered by the new technology compared with conventional production processes.
The generation of properties data on plastics falls short of what the designers and producers of end-products would prefer. The fundamental causes of this mismatch are examined and possible corrective actions are proposed with some data on impact resistance given to illustrate key points.
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
An overview of model development for seated occupants is presented. Two approaches have been investigated for modeling the vertical response of a seated dummy: finite element and simplified mass-spring-damper methods. The construction and implementation of these models are described, and the various successes and drawbacks of each modeling approach are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the models, emphasis was also placed on producing accurate, repeatable measurements of the static and dynamic characteristics of a seated dummy.
This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
The authors participated in a task force that was required to develop a repeatable, dependable, and reliable test procedure to compare, rate, and evaluate the severity of rattles. The assemblies involved in the study are designed and manufactured by different companies and are tested by different people on test equipment and instrumentation from different suppliers. The challenges therefore, were considerable and involved both the vibration inputs and responses as well as the acoustic responses. At the beginning of this activity, it was observed that different test labs using the same Ford vibration specs were obtaining different sounds from the same test item! Clearly, this was unacceptable and the test methods had to be improved and standardized. This paper focuses on vibration related to rattle testing. The particular assemblies used in this study were seat belt retractors.
In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
For many years manufacturer’s had to devote considerable work to demonstrate that an aircraft met the specific requirements. The indicator of credibility lies primarily in the award of Type Certification, marked by a Certification of Airworthiness. Since flight test engineering accounts for a major portion of aircraft manufacturer’s controllable cost; the implementation of structured methods and advanced operational procedures will yield the most dramatic single cost savings. The FTIMS/2000™ seamlessly links a complex array of strategic flight test business processes into a logical flow and is used as a true management tool. It is one of the only systems of its kind and is recognized by major aerospace corporations worldwide.
A series of side facing seat impact sled tests were conducted using the SID, EuroSID-1 and BioSID side impact Anthropomorphic Test Dummies (ATDs) at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI). The tests were performed on a side facing sofa fixture with a rigid bulkhead adjacent to the forward end of the seat. The purpose of the research project was to examine the methods utilized by the automobile industry to assess thoracic injuries due to side impact accidents, and to investigate the potential applicability of these methods for side facing seats and sofas in civil aircraft. Tests were conducted with single and double occupants. The test conditions complied with the 16g 44 f/s horizontal impact specified in 14 CFR 25.562. Various side impact injury criteria were evaluated in the tests, including the Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI), Viscous Criteria (VC), rib deflection and pelvis acceleration.
Ice accumulation on aircraft wings during flight is a dangerous situation. To deal with this problem, current deicing systems either prevent ice accumulation by heating or break the ice layer once it is formed by dynamic motion of a leading edge device such as a boot. These systems may be deficient due to excessive energy requirements or ineffectiveness. In this project, the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) composite material for deicing purposes is investigated. SMA such as Nitinol wire has an unusual characteristic where it can be trained to generate a compressive strain upon application of an electric current through the wire. Several different versions of two inch radius semi-circular SMA composite specimen were manufactured and tested at Wichita State University. Ice was successfully shed in static icing tests while each of the subsequent versions reduced the power input requirement.
This paper presents a method of detecting aircraft icing by monitoring its effects on aircraft dynamics. This paper shows that uncontrolled icing on control surfaces directly influences control effectiveness. Using data from onboard attitude and navigation sensors via highly computationally efficient algorithms, the control effectiveness is estimated, thereby detecting icing. Using actual flight test data from NASA Lewis Research Center, this paper demonstrates the ability of this method to detect the loss of elevator effectiveness that occurs with uncontrolled horizontal stabilizer icing that could result from a failed deicing boot. The method is generally applicable to loss of control effectiveness due to icing. Icing affects the aerodynamic performance of aircraft by contaminating the aerodynamic surfaces. Without anti-icing equipment icing, if sufficiently severe, can relatively quickly lead to a situation in which controllable flight is impossible.
A new multifunctional material was developed to provide corrosion protection, anti-chip protection and vibration damping equal to or better than the existing materials today. This multifunctional coating, applied robotically or manually with airless spray equipment, is a one component system and provides the following characteristics: high vibration damping, low viscosity-easy to process, low shrinkage-no small molecules given off, no solvents, excellent adhesion to oily steel and electrocoat, excellent stone-chip resistance, high stiffness and low density. This paper describes the application and performance benefits of utilizing this sprayable, chip-resistance damper.
This paper presents an integrated design/simulation/test approach for evaluating the sound quality of exhaust noise as early as possible in the exhaust system design and development process. A time domain engine/exhaust simulation program is used to calculate the engine order content of the tailpipe radiated noise from an odd fire V-10 exhaust system. Both steady state and transient conditions are simulated and sound files generated for exhaust sound quality evaluation. To increase the realism of played back sounds, the predicted engine orders are mixed with synthesized or recorded background noise for both steady state and transient conditions. These alternative approaches will be described and evaluated for technical feasibility and sound quality.
Silencers are very often filled with absorbent fibers to optimize the acoustic performance, particularly when the volume is limited. The fibers have to meet several specifications concerning (1) acoustic damping as a function of frequency, (2) temperature stability, (3) processing, and (4) blow-out resistance. This paper will review the characteristic properties for continuous fibers including Advantex™ versus standard E Glass as well as discontinuous fibers such as basalt wool. The failure mechanism of the various fibers will be explored in detail. Thermal shock testing, single filament tensile strengths, and weight loss measurements will be used to contrast the failure mechanism of these fibers. Additionally, the acoustic performance of silencers filled with different fibers will be analyzed and compared. The selection of different filling materials is closely linked to the production process utilized.
President Clinton announced in February 1997 a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. Weather continues to be identified as a causal factor in about 30% of all aviation accidents. An Aviation Weather Information Distribution and Presentation project has been established within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies that will provide accurate, timely and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project, described herein, addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators.