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Technical Paper

Design Analysis of High Power Density Additively Manufactured Induction Motor

2016-09-20
2016-01-2061
Induction machines (IM) are considered work horse for industrial applications due to their rugged, reliable and inexpensive nature; however, their low power density restricts their use in volume and weight limited environments such as an aerospace, traction and propulsion applications. Given recent advancements in additive manufacturing technologies, this paper presents opportunity to improve power density of induction machines by taking advantage of higher slot fill factor (SFF) (defined as ratio of bare copper area to slot area) is explored. Increase in SFF is achieved by deposition of copper in much more compact way than conventional manufacturing methods of winding in electrical machines. Thus a design tradeoff study for an induction motor with improved SFF is essential to identify and highlight the potentials of IM for high power density applications and is elaborated in this paper.
Journal Article

Cast Body Nodes for 2016 Acura NSX

2015-04-14
2015-01-0512
Ablation casting is an emerging technology which combines traditional sand molding techniques with rapid cooling due to the use of a water soluble binder. High cooling rates and control of solidification direction allows for exceptional mechanical properties and complex shapes. Through the use of ablation, six different body node castings have been manufactured for the 2016 NSX aluminum space frame. The high mechanical properties allowed these castings to be integrated into the crash structure for energy absorption. Using the traditional casting alloy A356, target mechanical properties were 190 Mpa Yield Strength, 280 Mpa Tensile Strength and 12% min elongation. The high elongation was achieved due to the refined eutectic microstructure produced by high cooling rates. The eutectic microstructure produced by ablation was found to be Level 5 or 6 on the AFS scale. Light weighting could also be achieved when compared to traditional GDC castings.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Anti-chipping Performance Primer for Various Application Process Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0534
Chipping performance of body paint on a vehicle has become increasingly important in harsher climates such as North America and Russia. Stones can cause body paint to chip down to substrate and expose bare metal, which can then lead to corrosion. The primer layer serves not only as the adhesion promoter between metal substrate and topcoat, but also secures overall chipping performance of the coating system. The benefits of a softer body primer have been established and described in Bock and Engbert’s SAE paper “Waterborne Polyurethane Based Paint Materials for the Automotive Industry - Present Situation and Future Possibilities - ,”[1], however, the challenge exists in accommodating various application process conditions.
Technical Paper

Condensate Drainage and Retention in Louver Fin Automotive Evaporators

2000-03-06
2000-01-0575
Condensate that forms on the air side surface of an evaporator can have a significant impact on the air side performance of brazed aluminum, louver fin automotive evaporators. Condensate can “bridge” the space between two adjacent fins or louvers and alter the flow of air through the evaporator, causing a change in the heat transfer and friction characteristics. This study attempts to determine how condensate drains from an evaporator in the hopes of improving the air side fin geometry and obtain an evaporator that retains a minimum amount of condensate. Using a table-top wind tunnel apparatus, qualitative observations of condensate draining from a single column of louver fins brazed to a refrigerant tube were made. The amount of condensate retained in an evaporator core was determined using the experimentally-verified dip test method.
Technical Paper

The Transient Temperature Distribution in a Heavy Duty Brake System During Fatigue Crack Testing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0441
A transient numerical heat transfer model has been developed for the purpose of estimating the time-dependent temperature distribution in a heavy duty drum brake system. The model is based on a forward-difference explicit finite difference solution of the heat equation, in combination with a non-uniform pressure distribution for energy input, based on observed brake lining wear. Temperatures predicted by the model were compared to experimental dynamometer drum temperature measurements. The model was utilized to simulate a common industrial test for evaluation of brake drum resistance to thermo-mechanical fatigue cracking. Thermo-physical property variation and drum wall thickness were shown to exert a strong influence on the predicted temperature gradients and fatigue cracking susceptibility.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis and Strength Evaluation of Bonded Shrink Fitted Joints Subjected to Torsional Loads

2000-03-06
2000-01-0426
This paper deals with stress analysis and strength evaluation of bonded shrink fitted joints subjected to torsion. The stress distributions in the adhesive layer of bonded shrink fitted joints are analyzed by using the axisymmetric theory of elasticity when an external torsion is applied to the upper end of shaft. The effect of the outer diameter and the stiffness of rings on the interface stress distributions are clarified by the numerical calculations. Using the interface stress distributions, joint strength is predicted. In addition, joint strength was measured experimentally. It is seen that a rupture of adhesive layer is initiated from the upper edge of the interfaces when a torsion is applied to the upper end of shaft. The numerical result are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the joint strength of bonded shrink fitted joints is greater than that of shrink fitted joints.
Technical Paper

Properties and Applications of an Anaerobic Sealant for High Joint Movement

2000-03-06
2000-01-0422
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a FIPG (Formed In Place Gasket) system which is developed by combining an anaerobic sealant and a dispensing valve. A new anaerobic sealant is developed and evaluated in various ways. The result shows that the anaerobic sealant resists movement and has durability. To improve shelf life, the presence of air is introduced into the sealant. However, during dispensing of the sealant, the air must be eliminated. To remove the air bubbles, a spiral shaped dispensing valve is introduced. The valve insures a continuous bead.
Technical Paper

Use of Waterborne, “Bakeable” Technology for Sealing Interior Seams in the Paint Shop-A Halogen Free Approach

2000-03-06
2000-01-0425
The use of products containing polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC), in Paint Shop sealing applications, is a well-established practice at today's automobile manufactures. PVC technology has dominated this part of the manufacturing process due to the performance and cost effectiveness of the finished products. This paper will describe the use of a halogen free, waterborne technology, which compares favorably with both the performance and financial attributes of PVC products.
Technical Paper

Requirements for Improved Performance of Specialty Sealing and Bonding Materials for Automotive Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-0423
Driven by global pressures of weight reduction and cost savings, suppliers of specialty sealing and bonding products to the automotive industry have responded by expanding the focus of their product development activities. OEM engineering practices have brought about significant changes within the specialty sealing and bonding supply base. The successful suppliers in this market have responded to these pressures and initiated changes in the processes through which their materials are developed and released into production. In an industry historically populated by chemists and manufacturing process engineers, new requirements have led to an increase in application engineers and technical specialists, providing the necessary vehicle development expertise to the sealant industry. To support these expanded roles, new research and development facilities and associated advanced technologies have become a critical requirement.
Technical Paper

Adhesives for Bonding Plastics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0421
The proper choice of adhesive is made difficult by the large number of plastics available. Assemblers must understand that plastics, compared to traditional materials, such as metals, have lower tensile strength, are usually more flexible, have higher coefficients of expansion, and often are harder to bond to. The proper choice of adhesive can only be made after understanding the various factors affecting an adhesive bond. The factors include the type of plastic, surface preparation, adhesive type, joint design, and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Sensitivity Studies on Glass Bonding Urethanes

2000-03-06
2000-01-0419
This paper investigates the sensitivities of glass bonding adhesives to the dynamic characteristics of automotive body structures. Experimental modal analysis was conducted to study the damping, response amplitude, and stiffness of different adhesives to a door assembly and a vehicle body. Three different glass bonding adhesives were used in this study. Performance advantages of using these adhesives are given.
Technical Paper

Hydromechanical Deep-Drawing of Fuel Tanks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0415
Deep-drawing with hydraulic counter pressure presents numerous advantages compared to conventional deep-drawing. Hydromechanical deep-drawing is a capable process for producing complicated and tapered-shaped stamping parts as well as parts which require excellent surface quality, i.e. outer body panels. Due to the lower costs of dies as compared to those for conventional deep-drawing, hydromechanical deep-drawing for low volume production allows for cost-savings. By using a fuel tank consisting of an upper and a lower tray as a sample, this paper discusses the various possibilities of hydromechanical deep-drawing. The described die set has an integrated multi-point draw cushion which permits material flow control through optimized blankholder forces [Aus]. In addition, a new machine concept of a 35,000 kN press, which can be used for hydroforming of tubes, extrusions, and sheets, will be presented.
Technical Paper

Advanced Material Technologies — A Key Factor for Ultimate Driving Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-0418
This contribution illustrates the important role modern material technology plays in automobile development. Numerous examples chosen from body, suspension, and powertrain components show how low weight technologies, better comfort, and a high level of recyclability can be achieved by advanced material solutions. General trends in material development for automotive applications are pointed out. Examples shown are high strength steels for body-in-white, aluminum for suspension, and modern plastics for engine components. In addition, some ideas are given for potential future material technologies as a key factor in providing ultimate driving performance.
Technical Paper

Structural Rebound Characteristics of the Car Population in Frontal Impacts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0461
An idealization of the elastic compression of the car on the basis of representing the car-body as a cylindrical shell with elastic wrinkles shows that three main factors govern the rebound velocity and hence the coefficient of restitution. These are the 3/2 power of acceleration at maximum dynamic crush, the square of the ratio of car-body mass to overall car mass and the half power of the position of the plastic/elastic crush interface. The model is applied to predict mean rebound characteristics for the car population. A comparison with published experimental data of the coefficient of restitution of the car population in frontal impacts with rigid barriers at impact speeds up to 100 km/h was made. The model predicted values of e similar in magnitude to those of the car population and also predicted a similar reduction in e with increasing impact speed.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Solder Joint Life Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0454
A unified approach has been developed and applied to solder joint life prediction in this paper, which indicates a breakthrough for solder joint reliability simulation. It includes the material characterization of solder alloys, the testing of solder joint specimens, a unified viscoplastic constitutive framework with damage evolution, numerical algorithm development and implementation, and experimental validation. The emphasis of this report focuses on the algorithm development and experimental verification of proposed viscoplasticity with damage evolution.
Technical Paper

Use of Isotemp Curves for Selecting Automotive Cable

2000-03-06
2000-01-0455
The thermal lifetime of cable used in automobiles can be predicted using Isotemp Curves. These curves take into account the cumulative effects of both temperature rise due to current flow as well as ambient temperature. Use of these curves allows for the proper selection of an insulating material and cable size based on identified electrical load, environmental conditions, and desired product life.
Technical Paper

Over-Current Protection of Wire with Circuit Protection Devices Utilizing the Temperature, Time and Current Relationship of Wire Heating

2000-03-06
2000-01-0459
The temperature-current characteristics (TiC) chart and time-temperature-at-current (tTaC) chart provide a mean to evaluate the compatibility of an over-current protection device and a particular type of wire. These charts describe the wire temperature behavior independently of the damage temperature of the wire insulation. They can be used to determine the required insulation material to satisfy the operating properties of the protection device or to determine the adequacy of the protection device for a given wire insulation. This paper describes how these charts can be used to establish one of the aspects of the wire protection strategy for a new or an existing type of protection device.
Technical Paper

42V PowerNet in Door Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-0450
This article describes the effects of a future 42V automotive electrical system on the vehicle electronics, focusing mainly on the consequences for power semiconductors and their associated technologies. Taking the example of a door module, it then shows how existing 14V loads can be operated on the 42V PowerNet and what advantages result for operation of adjusted 42V loads. The following different problem-solving approaches are presented for typical loads such as power windows, electrically positioned and heated outside mirrors, and central locking: Power windows: A test motor specially developed for the 42V supply is continuously operated directly from the electrical system using suitable power semiconductors. Central locking: A conventional 14V motor is operated at 42V, its operating point being set using pulse width modulation (PWM). Remaining door module: Smaller 14V mirror motors and the control electronics are supplied from a second 14V system.
Technical Paper

Before and After Comparison of LRO and TV of Rotors After Low Temperature Gas Nitriding and Polymer Coat for Increased Corrosion Life

2000-03-06
2000-01-0445
Hayes Lemmerz has published in previous papers (Ref-1, 2 & 3), the method to low temperature nitride and polymer coat cast iron rotors to provide increased corrosion life, wear resistance and reduction in brake noise. We have, in this paper, investigated the two key dimensions of the rotor before and after the Nitriding Process. Low temperature (1050 degrees F) nitride finish machined rotors have to be handled in a special support fixture to prevent a change in thickness variation (TV) and lateral runout (LRO). Hayes Lemmerz has developed methods to keep LRO and TV in the print specification after the Nitriding and polymer coat process. The parts are made to extremely tight LRO and TV tolerances so that Nitriding done on such rotors, the dimensions of the rotors do not exceed print specification.
Technical Paper

Design Criteria of Catalyst Substrates for NOx Adsorber Function

2000-03-06
2000-01-0502
Against the background of the current discussions on the reduction in CO2 emissions, the development of lean-burn engines is acquiring increasing importance. In order to meet future emissions limits, new strategies are required, especially for NOx conversion. One technique developed in recent years for the conversion of NOx in lean exhaust gases is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which stores NOx in lean operating conditions and must periodically be regenerated with rich exhaust gas. In this paper, the influence of catalyst substrate design on NOx conversion is described. In addition NOx conversion measurements with NOx adsorbers of various cell densities, variable diameter/length ratios as well as smooth and structured channel walls are carried out.
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