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Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions from Natural Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1507
The objective of the work described here is to test the performance of closed-loop controlled, heavy-duty CNG engines in-use, on fuels of different methane content; and to compare their performance with similar diesel vehicles. Performance is measured in terms of pollutant emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. To achieve this objective, three buses powered by closed-loop controlled, dedicated natural gas engines were tested on the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer facility at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, PM, and THC or NMHC), as well as emissions of alde-hydes for some vehicles, are reported. Two fuels were employed: a high methane fuel (90%) and a low methane fuel (85%). It was found that the NOx, CO, and PM emissions for a given cycle and vehicle are essentially constant for different methane content fuels.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Activities of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Weather Research Program

1999-04-20
1999-01-1578
Weather is a major cause of aircraft accidents and incidents and the single largest contributor to air traffic system delays. Through improvements in the knowledge of current weather conditions and reliable forecasts, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can improve aviation safety, increase system capacity, and enhance flight planning and fuel efficiency. The FAA has established an Aviation Weather Research (AWR) program to address specific requirements for weather support to aviation by providing the capability to generate more accurate and accessible weather observations, warnings, and forecasts and also by increasing the scientific understanding of atmospheric processes that spawn aviation weather hazards. The goal of AWR is to provide meteorological research that leads to the satisfaction of specific aviation weather requirements.
Technical Paper

EC-Diesel Technology Validation Program Interim Report

2000-06-19
2000-01-1854
ARCO has developed diesel fuel called Emission Control Diesel (EC-D) that results in substantially lower exhaust emissions compared to a typical California diesel fuel. EC-D has ultra-low sulfur content, low aromatics, and has a high cetane number. EC-D is produced from typical crude oil using a conventional refining process. Initial engine laboratory tests and vehicle tests indicated that EC-D reduced regulated emissions while maintaining fuel economy, compared to a typical California diesel fuel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels such as EC-D may enable the widespread use of passive catalyzed particulate filters for both new and existing diesel engines. The use of catalyzed particulate filters could allow large reductions of particulate matter emitted from vehicles. A one-year technology validation program is being run to evaluate EC-D and catalyzed particulate filters using diesel vehicles operating in Southern California.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Pilot Fuel

2000-06-19
2000-01-1835
In an attempt to extend the upper load limit for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), supercharging in combination with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have been applied. Two different boost pressures were used, 1.1 bar and 1.5 bar. High EGR rates were used in order to reduce the combustion rate. The highest obtained IMEP was 16 bar. This was achieved with the higher boost pressure, at close to stoichiometric conditions and with approximately 50 % EGR. Natural gas was used as the main fuel. In the case with the higher boost pressure, iso-octane was used as pilot fuel, to improve the ignition properties of the mixture. This made it possible to use a lower compression ratio and thereby reducing the maximum cylinder pressure. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine operated at low speed (1000 rpm). The test engine was equipped with a modified cylinder head, having a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) mechanism.
Technical Paper

On-Board Hydrogen Generation for Rapid Catalyst Light-Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1841
This paper describes an on-vehicle demonstration of a hydrogen-heated catalyst (HHC) system for reducing the level of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle. The HHC system incorporated an onboard electrolyzer that generates and stores hydrogen (H2) during routine vehicle operation. Stored hydrogen and supplemental air are injected upstream of a platinum-containing automotive catalyst when the engine is started. Rapid heating of the catalytic converter occurs immediately as a result of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen (H2) with oxygen (O2) on the catalyst surface. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results of the hydrogen-heated catalyst-equipped vehicle demonstrated reductions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) up to 68 and 62 percent, respectively. This study includes a brief analysis of the emissions and fuel economy effects of a 10-minute period of hydrogen generation during the FTP.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Study of the Ford PRODIGY Aerodynamics using Computational Fluid Dynamics with Experimental Support

2000-04-02
2000-01-1578
The Ford P2000 prototype vehicle represents Ford Motor Company's commitment towards environmental stewardship through high fuel efficiency and low tailpipe emission. Low aerodynamic drag coefficient (Cd), weight reduction, and power train efficiency improvements are required in order to accomplish the overall fuel economy target. The objective of this study is to establish an aerodynamic efficient body shape (Cd = .20) that meets the cost, weight, styling, package and fuel economy targets. Furthermore, this vehicle must be able to be operated and manufactured. A new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method based on a lattice gas approach was piloted for developing and evaluating body shape design alternatives in support of the P2000 PRODIGY aerodynamic objective. Wind tunnel tests were performed to further explore the aerodynamic opportunities that are beyond the capability of the computational method as well as validate the CFD prediction.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1581
Since 1989, the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) has organized the American Tour de Sol in which a wide variety of participants operate electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for several hundred miles under various roadway conditions (e.g., city center and highway). The event offers a unique opportunity to collect on-the-road energy efficiency data for these EVs and HEVs as well as comparable gasoline-fueled conventional vehicles (CVs) that are driven under the same conditions. NESEA and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated on collecting and analyzing vehicle efficiency data during the 1998 and 1999 NESEA American Tour de Sols.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Storage R&D Programs at the U.S. Department of Energy-Recent Achievements and Current Status

2000-04-02
2000-01-1604
The United States supports an active research and development (R&D) program to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and accelerate their commercialization. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), supports the development of advanced energy storage and power electronics technologies, fuel cells, advanced direct-injection engines, vehicle systems, lightweight materials, and fuels. Much of this R&D directly supports the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a landmark partnership between the U.S. Federal Government and automakers with the goal of developing a six-passenger family sedan with up to 80 miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy by 2004. In these efforts, the DOE is working closely with its national laboratories, the auto industry and its suppliers, other government agencies, universities, and innovative small businesses. The Department continues to collaborate closely with the U.S.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology Program (CARAT): Accelerating the Commercialization of Innovative Technology

2000-04-02
2000-01-1594
The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology (CARAT) program is designed to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies that will overcome barriers to achieving the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Program. Aimed at harnessing the creativity and capabilities of American small businesses and colleges and universities, this unique technology R&D program seeks to develop and bring advanced technologies into use in production vehicles at a faster rate. CARAT's focus is developing and commercializing technology that overcomes key technical barriers preventing the production of vehicles with ultra-high fuel efficiency. CARAT begins with technologies that already have a firm technical basis and, through a unique three-stage process, ends with fully validated technologies ready for mass production. The program is open to all U.S. entrepreneurs and small businesses, colleges, and universities.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Roll, Squat, and Dive Through Biased Suspension Response

2000-05-01
2000-01-1632
Conventionally sprung vehicles are subject to rolling and pitching of the sprung load as the vehicle corners and accelerates, respectively. Designs which incorporate active elements seek to control these movements, frequently resulting in compromised performance or reduced fuel economy. This paper considers the possible replacement of conventional springs, shocks, and anti-sway bars with specified fluid spring components. The fluid spring components offer biased response to dynamic load variations in the following manner: provide support of the sprung load equal to the magnitude of the load at each moment, and either compressing readily to absorb upward forces originating in the wheel assembly which exceed the magnitude of the load at that moment, or extending rapidly to provide support equal to the magnitude of the load at that moment, in the event the wheel assembly tracks through a hole.
Technical Paper

Review of Organic Friction Modifiers - Contribution to Fuel Efficiency?

2000-06-19
2000-01-1792
Friction modifiers have been around for many years. Originally, the application was for limited slip gear oils, automatic transmission fluids and multipurpose tractor fluids. Since fuel economy became an international issue, initially to reduce crude oil consumption, friction modifiers have been introduced into automotive crankcase lubricants as well. The current emphasis is to improve the fuel efficiency through the engine lubricant and to reduce emissions to the environment. This paper describes the chemistry of the various organic friction modifiers as well as the non-organic types. A basic understanding is given on the mechanisms how and why these products work as friction modifiers and what is known about structure - activity relationships. Definitions are given about the various lubrication regimes as well as figures to what extend these regimes are present in current engine tests measuring fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Package Bearings to Improve Driveline Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1785
The tapered roller bearings employed in axle centers for the pinion support are critical components in determining the noise, fuel economy and reliability characteristics of the vehicle. They represent a relatively complex mechanical and tribological system, with special requirements from the stiffness, lubrication and heat transfer points of view. This paper brings a contribution to the investigation of the intricate dependency between design parameters, environmental factors and the resultant performance of a package bearing in an integral double cup configuration. Axial compactness, reduced weight, and superior rigidity are only few of the multiple advantages recommending this type of double row bearings for automotive driveline applications. Different aspects related to the tapered roller bearing setting are analyzed in a theoretical and experimental manner, also under the consideration of the manufacturing and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Tribological Characteristics of Energy-Conserving Engine Oils Using a Reciprocating Bench Test

2000-06-19
2000-01-1781
Engine design and tribology engineers are constantly challenged to develop advanced products with reduced weight, reduced friction, longer life, and higher engine operating temperatures. The resulting engine systems must also meet more demanding emissions and fuel economy targets. Advanced energy-conserving lubricants and surface coatings are concurrently evolving to meet the needs of new engine materials. Because of the enormous cost and time associated with engine testing, much interest is being focused on the development of representative and repeatable bench tests for evaluation of engine materials and lubricants. The authors have developed a bench test employing reciprocating motion for evaluating friction and energy-conserving characteristics of lubricants.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether Applying EGR with Supercharging

2000-06-19
2000-01-1809
This research investigates engine performance and the possibility of reducing exhaust emissions by using Dimethyl Ether (DME). There are high expectations for DME as a new alternative fuel for diesel engines for heavy-duty vehicles. In this experiment, a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with displacement of 1.05 liter and a compression ratio of 18:1 was used as a base engine. Common rail type DME fuel injection equipment for the single cylinder engine experiment was installed, and direct injection in the cylinder of DME was tried. Results indicated that high injection pressure, high swirl ratio, and supercharging using multi-hole injectors are effective for combustion promotion in the DME fueled diesel engine (DME engine). The output of the DME engine using supercharging with an intercooler and EGR was higher than that of a diesel engine. By increasing the EGR rate Nox emission was reduced to about 1/3 that of the diesel engine. Smoke was not completely emitted.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Durability of Cordierite–Based NOx Adsorber/Catalyst Systems for Lean Burn Gasoline Applications

1999-10-25
1999-01-3500
One approach to the remediation of NOx generated under lean automotive engine conditions is its controlled storage and then periodic release and reaction under enriched conditions. This process is being considered for automotive exhaust systems that will be operated pre–dominantly lean for reasons of fuel economy. Because of the special characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the presence of NOx, they are being considered for use, in conjunction with γ–alumina–based washcoats and precious metal catalysts, as NOx catalyst coatings on cellular supports. It is known that alumino–silicates will react with alkali and alkaline earth elements to form stable ceramic phases when mixtures of the components are held in direct contact at elevated temperatures.
Technical Paper

NEWPED - A Stealth Auxiliary Engine in a Bicycle with Very Low Noise, Low Pollutant Emission and Good Fuel Economy

1999-09-28
1999-01-3280
The development history of a 30cc 2-stroke engine power unit in the covered rear wheel for retrofit into standard bicycle chassis. The rear wheel acts as cooling fan for the air cooled long stroke engine with catalyst exhaust system, autochoke carburetor, autolube oil pump, electric start and inertia start, single speed automatic transmission and 7 speed hub final drive. The space in the rear wheel contains intake air filter, exhaust system, fuel tank, oil tank and engine with drive train, the complete engine being only 94mm wide. The complete covered power unit is nearly undetectable as the rear wheel covers resemble road racing bicycles. There is very low stationary and pass-by noise (64 db[A]), no exhaust gas opacity or smell, very low vibration level and very good fuel economy up to 133 km/l.
Technical Paper

In-Service Evaluation of Performance Enhancing Coatings for a Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3666
This paper presents the results of an on-road evaluation of in-cylinder ceramic thermal barrier coating GPX″-4M and turbocharger clearance control coating. Engelhard Corporation carried out the testing as a part of a pre-production product development and evaluation process. Contained in the paper are the results of a three-year long experiment conducted on an Engelhard's truck. Discussed in the paper are in-service performance and durability of Engelhard's coating. The experimental fuel usage data underwent substantial statistical treatment and analysis. In combination with the unique test conditions this allowed credible conclusions regarding the truck fuel economy. It was clearly demonstrated that the truck equipped with in-cylinder GPX coated components used 1.4% less fuel than a standard truck for the same amount of work performed over a 16-month period. This fuel saving is associated with the engine rebuild.
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