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Technical Paper

Development of a Single-Shoe Leading-Trailing Drum Brake—Code Named Fuchsia

2000-03-06
2000-01-0443
This paper describes a unique leading-trailing service drum brake design, code named Fuchsia, comprising a one-piece shoe and backing plate arrangement with an integral shoe platform. Because of the integral construction, Fuchsia offers a significant reduction in parts over the conventional drum brake design---it consolidates 16 standard components into one---resulting in a potential cost advantage over benchmarked products. It also offers benefits in performance stability, vibration resistance, low residual drag, low parasitic losses, and low operating threshold when compared to traditional designs. This paper gives an account of the key manufacturing processes, characteristics and performance testing of the brake and the incorporation of a extended-life lining configuration.
Technical Paper

Condensate Drainage and Retention in Louver Fin Automotive Evaporators

2000-03-06
2000-01-0575
Condensate that forms on the air side surface of an evaporator can have a significant impact on the air side performance of brazed aluminum, louver fin automotive evaporators. Condensate can “bridge” the space between two adjacent fins or louvers and alter the flow of air through the evaporator, causing a change in the heat transfer and friction characteristics. This study attempts to determine how condensate drains from an evaporator in the hopes of improving the air side fin geometry and obtain an evaporator that retains a minimum amount of condensate. Using a table-top wind tunnel apparatus, qualitative observations of condensate draining from a single column of louver fins brazed to a refrigerant tube were made. The amount of condensate retained in an evaporator core was determined using the experimentally-verified dip test method.
Technical Paper

Development of an Efficient Signaling Lamp with LEDs Mounted on a Free Formed Surface

2000-03-06
2000-01-0436
In keeping with recent trends in vehicle body design, there is an increasing requirement for signaling lamps to have a more slanted and bent shape. There are also growing expectations that light emitting diodes (LEDs) will replace incandescent bulbs in signaling lamps. LEDs, however, will bring a cost problem if they are to be mounted on conventional hard printed circuit bases. We have overcome this problem by developing pressureweldable LEDs which can be attached to free formed surfaces without soldering. As a result it has become possible to design LED signaling lamps with a superb beam utilization.
Technical Paper

Color Aberrations of the Projector Systems and their Corrections by the Shape and Position of the Shields

2000-03-06
2000-01-0434
This paper deals with the origins of color aberrations (defects) that may occur in the beam patterns of projector lamps and ways to correct these. These optical aberrations cause the pronounced colored effect along the boundary of the cut-off line. Descriptions include basic analysis of the light beam superposition within the final light output and the influence of the shield position and shield shape to colored cut-off line effects. The forming of the light beam by the reflector, to a certain extent, determines which shield shape will be suitable for eliminating of the color effect. However the shield shape also correlates with the chosen lens. If the wrong shield is chosen than the color aberrations and other defects will arise. This paper describes basic principles that should enable the optical designers to avoid these effects.
Technical Paper

Use of Waterborne, “Bakeable” Technology for Sealing Interior Seams in the Paint Shop-A Halogen Free Approach

2000-03-06
2000-01-0425
The use of products containing polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC), in Paint Shop sealing applications, is a well-established practice at today's automobile manufactures. PVC technology has dominated this part of the manufacturing process due to the performance and cost effectiveness of the finished products. This paper will describe the use of a halogen free, waterborne technology, which compares favorably with both the performance and financial attributes of PVC products.
Technical Paper

Requirements for Improved Performance of Specialty Sealing and Bonding Materials for Automotive Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-0423
Driven by global pressures of weight reduction and cost savings, suppliers of specialty sealing and bonding products to the automotive industry have responded by expanding the focus of their product development activities. OEM engineering practices have brought about significant changes within the specialty sealing and bonding supply base. The successful suppliers in this market have responded to these pressures and initiated changes in the processes through which their materials are developed and released into production. In an industry historically populated by chemists and manufacturing process engineers, new requirements have led to an increase in application engineers and technical specialists, providing the necessary vehicle development expertise to the sealant industry. To support these expanded roles, new research and development facilities and associated advanced technologies have become a critical requirement.
Technical Paper

Experimental Sensitivity Studies on Glass Bonding Urethanes

2000-03-06
2000-01-0419
This paper investigates the sensitivities of glass bonding adhesives to the dynamic characteristics of automotive body structures. Experimental modal analysis was conducted to study the damping, response amplitude, and stiffness of different adhesives to a door assembly and a vehicle body. Three different glass bonding adhesives were used in this study. Performance advantages of using these adhesives are given.
Technical Paper

Engineering Development and Performance of an Integrated Structural Instrument Panel Assembly and Heater-Ventilation-Air-Conditioning Assembly

2000-03-06
2000-01-0416
Textron Automotive Trim, Valeo Climate Control, and Torrington Research Company, with assistance from GE Plastics, have developed an integrated instrument panel system to meet ever-increasing industry targets for: Investment and piece-cost reduction; Mass/weight savings; Quality and performance improvements; Packaging and space availability; Government regulation levels; and Innovative technology. This system, developed through feedback with the DaimlerChrysler Corporation, combines the distinctive requirements of the instrument panel (IP) with the heater-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) assembly. Implementing development disciplines such as benchmarking, brainstorming, and force ranking, a number of concepts were generated and evaluated. Using a current-production, small, multi-purpose vehicle environment, a mainstream concept was designed and engineered.
Technical Paper

Hydromechanical Deep-Drawing of Fuel Tanks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0415
Deep-drawing with hydraulic counter pressure presents numerous advantages compared to conventional deep-drawing. Hydromechanical deep-drawing is a capable process for producing complicated and tapered-shaped stamping parts as well as parts which require excellent surface quality, i.e. outer body panels. Due to the lower costs of dies as compared to those for conventional deep-drawing, hydromechanical deep-drawing for low volume production allows for cost-savings. By using a fuel tank consisting of an upper and a lower tray as a sample, this paper discusses the various possibilities of hydromechanical deep-drawing. The described die set has an integrated multi-point draw cushion which permits material flow control through optimized blankholder forces [Aus]. In addition, a new machine concept of a 35,000 kN press, which can be used for hydroforming of tubes, extrusions, and sheets, will be presented.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Solder Joint Life Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0454
A unified approach has been developed and applied to solder joint life prediction in this paper, which indicates a breakthrough for solder joint reliability simulation. It includes the material characterization of solder alloys, the testing of solder joint specimens, a unified viscoplastic constitutive framework with damage evolution, numerical algorithm development and implementation, and experimental validation. The emphasis of this report focuses on the algorithm development and experimental verification of proposed viscoplasticity with damage evolution.
Technical Paper

High Flexibility in Converter Design by Using Modular Block Metallic Substrates

2000-03-06
2000-01-0497
This paper presents an innovative product for emission control: the Modular Block Metallic Substrate. Pre-coated metallic foils are welded to a metallic frame and form a substrate block (typically 100 cm3). This allows a standardized manufacturing process, which is independent of the block cell density. The blocks are welded together to form the converter, the number of blocks assuring the required substrate volume. This modular approach results in high design flexibility allowing the use of high cell density substrates (up to 1250 Cpsi) without any backpressure increase. It also allows dealing successfully with severe space constraints. The paper describes the principles of design and manufacturing of the Modular Block Metallic Substrate and demonstrates the durability performances of the blocks at high temperatures and vibration levels. Examples of applications are presented to show the advantages of the concept when high design flexibility is required.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0492
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

GMR Revolution Sensors for Automobiles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0540
We have developed a new series of revolution sensors using Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) elements. We call these GMR revolution sensors. In automotive applications, revolution sensors have traditionally utilized Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) elements. Recently, more sensitive revolution sensors are necessary for improved control of engines, braking systems and automatic transmissions. Since GMR elements have one order higher MR ratio than AMR elements, GMR revolution sensors are much more sensitive. Furthermore, GMR elements have been integrated with circuits on Si substrates. This integration simplify the assembly process and increases the reliability of the GMR revolution sensors. This paper discusses the superiority of GMR sensing elements over Hall and AMR elements. This paper also reports the characteristic results of the GMR sensor.
Technical Paper

Novel Near-Net-Shape Tool-Less Method for Manufacturing of Cast Metal Matrix Composites: Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) of Ceramic Preforms Combined with Investment Casting Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0675
New three-dimensional printing technology (3DP) developed at MIT was tried as a manufacturing method to fabricate ceramic preforms for a discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. Minor modifications to the “legacy” 3DP technology allowed to produce such preforms successfully. Preforms were then infiltrated with liquid aluminum resulting in composite materials as strong as produced via conventional methods. Net shape connecting rod preforms were 3D-printed and used to produce composite connecting rods without building any molds or tooling using novel Tool-less Mold™ technology.
Technical Paper

An Improvement of the Sealing Performance in Stamped Steel Bolted Flanged Joints by Using Liquid Sealant Under Internal Pressure

2000-03-06
2000-01-0684
It is important to improve the sealing performance of bolted flanged joints subjected to internal pressure. Recently, bolted joints with flexible flanges of stamped steel have been used in an oil-pan structure of automobile from a lightweight viewpoint. However, it is difficult to improve the sealing performance of flexible bolted flanged joints due to the reduction of the interface pressure. In this paper, a liquid sealant is applied to a box-shaped flexible bolted flanged joints such as oil-pan structures subjected to internal pressure in order to improve the sealing performance. In the experiments, an internal pressure when a leakage occurred was measured in the case where box-shaped bolted flanged joints in which liquid sealant was applied to the interfaces between aluminum flexible flanges (the upper) with thickness of 1 and 3mm and the steel (aluminum) flange with 10mm thickness (the lower) and where the bolt positions are changed.
Technical Paper

Study of Rubber Flow Behavior Inside Mold

2000-03-06
2000-01-0679
The flow behavior of rubber compounds inside a mold is very complicated including various phenomena such as heat transfer from the mold, wall slip and swell at the divergent cavity. A slit rheometer which can measure the flow behavior inside a mold during curing was developed. The rheometer has a window which enables the observation of the flow behavior directly under 50 MPa. The pressure loss gradient along the flow direction and shear viscosity were found to be independent on the degree of cure but wall slip was observed. The wall slip phenomena could not be explained by slip analysis, because plug flow occurred due to little effects of the poiseuille flow. The pressure behavior inside the slit could be well predicted by using the equation obtained by assuming stress relaxation of visoelastic fluid occurs without share along the wall. The stress relaxation phenomena were predicted by taking into account the short and log relaxation time.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Mixture Formation and Combustion in GDI Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0648
The internal mixture formation within SI engines using fuel direct injection has a significant potential regarding the reduction of bsfc and pollutant emission. However the short time available for injection and spray distribution, as well as the complexity of the fluid dynamic conditions, amplified in a wide load and speed range, form a different base for the combustion process than using external mixture formation. The intend of the present study is to develop a method for modeling and optimization of mixture formation and combustion using a general approach for the fuel direct injection, which consist in the modulation of the injection rate, independently on the engine speed. In the first stage of modeling, the optimum combination between mixture formation elements as fuel pressure history, injection timing, spray characteristics, injector location or combustion chamber design is of great importance, forming the conditions for the subsequent combustion process.
Technical Paper

Construction of a Vibration Simulation Model for the Transportation of Wheelchair-Bound Passengers

2000-03-06
2000-01-0645
Against discomfort of vehicles for wheelchair users, countermeasures such as a vibration absorber are required. To determine the optimal characteristics of the absorber, we had proposed the Comfort Evaluation Prediction System (CEPS) that can predict subjective evaluation from floor vibration, considering passengers' constitutions and wheelchair types. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model that simulates the vibration transmited to the passenger as part of the CEPS. We modeled a wheelchair-bound passenger and estimated unknown parameters by the result of a modal experiment. Then some simulations were carried out to suggest applicability of the model.
Technical Paper

A New High Strength Aluminium Alloy for Controlled Atmosphere Brazing

2001-05-14
2001-01-1727
A new high strength aluminium alloy intended for tubes in automotive radiators has been developed. The material is an age hardening alloy containing Mg, Si, Cu, and Mn. Titanium is added for corrosion protection. The post-braze strength of the material is dependent on the cooling rate after brazing. With 1°C/s cooling rate between 400 and 200°C, the Rp0.2 will be about 75 MPa. The corrosion resistance of the material is excellent. It is more noble than standard fin materials and will be protected by sacrificial action. Any attack in the material will be forced into a lamellar mode due to the Ti addition.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Statistical Distribution of Composite Manufactured Transmission Error, A Precursor to Gear Whine, for A Helical Planetary Gear System

2001-04-30
2001-01-1507
Gear whine is one of the NVH attributes that have become noticeable as performance of other NVH attributes is improved. The predominant root cause of gear whine is transmission error, defined as the deviation of angular position of driven gear/s from the ideal conjugate position/s. Presence of Transmission error can be attributed to three major sources: 1) dimensional variability of individual gears during manufacturing, 2) misalignment during assembly and 3) dynamic tooth deflections during operation. This paper describes a method to estimate statistical distribution of Composite Manufactured Transmission Error (cMTE) for a planetary gear system based on measured surface variation of the gear tooth profiles. The statistical distribution of the surface variation is derived from measured left and right profiles for four equally spaced teeth per gear in both lead and involute directions.
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