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Technical Paper

Recycling Potential of Polymers

1996-04-01
91A123
In order to reduce the volume of waste in general and of shredder waste from the disposal of scrap cars, the German Federal Government has prepared a draft regulation, which will be implemented unless the automotive industry and the distributors of imported cars take action on their own to achieve these objectives. The regulation provides that the car manufacturers are fully responsible for the environmentally controlled disposal of scrap cars. The return of scrap cars to the work industry must be free of change for the last owner. A nation-wide network for the return of scrap cars must be implemented by end of 1993. To reduce the amount of shredder waste the automotive industry is expected to practice recycling on non-metallic materials. Facilities required for thermal treatment of residues, which cannot be recycled, are to be installed on account of the originator, i.e. the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Recycling Automobiles: a Problem of Environment and Resources

1996-04-01
91A130
The socio-economic system is coming to the conclusion that the environment will no longer tolerate and absorb all of man's interventions, and that natural resources no longer constitute a cheap and inexhaustible source of wealth. In this scenario of the limits of nature and ever-increasing environmental costs, we are faced with the problem of recovering and reusing the materials which go into the manufacture of an automobile. The replacement of metal materials with polymer materials leads to a reduction in the re-usable waste, and to an increase in the amount of waste with no economic value, or even with a negative economic value. The use of the non-ferrous and non-aluminous materials in an automobile is beyond the capabilities of new techniques for scrapping automobiles, which means that at the end of their lives, the automobiles must be disassembled, sorted on the basis of the constitute materials, recovered and recycled.
Technical Paper

Implications of Future Scrap Car Handling for Design of Cars

1996-04-01
91A124
In this paper the socio-economic and technical problems of the handling of car wrecks are discussed. The recovery of metals as a goal for shredder operations will increasingly be supplemented with the recovery of other materials such as polymers. In order to deal economically and technically with polymer materials, it is necessary to know in advance which type of wreck handling will be used. Also optimization of shredder operations allow less freedom to incorporate a variety of materials when compared with selective dismantling or disassemble of cars. It is argued that various technical solutions have to be accompanied by increased cooperation along the firms that are connected to the handling of car wrecks. Cooperation between the scrap context and designers is essential, in order to optimize dismantling practices according to criteria of environmentally preferred solutions.
Technical Paper

The Transformation of Recycled Painted Fascias for use in Automotive Acoustical Applications

1999-05-17
1999-01-1678
Substantial activity in the field of recycling has made industry increasingly aware of the need to find novel ways of reusing post industrial and post consumer waste to produce useful products for our markets. The traditional approaches have been to use the scrap material as is into the original markets targeted for virgin materials, and finding areas that can accept the resultant downgraded properties. This approach has created difficulties in the recycling of automotive painted thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) fascia and trim products. The presence of the paint contaminant has substantially degraded the physical properties of the plastic. This paper reviews the use of painted TPO scrap as a raw material for automotive sound barrier applications whereby the inherent material characteristics of TPO are capitalized on. The material modifications and functional characteristics as they relate to this application are described.
Technical Paper

Soft Control – Utilizing Existing I/O

1999-05-10
1999-01-1623
The Timken Company's Faircrest Steel Plant has numerous automated control systems. The Raw Material Handling System and a grinder application on the Billet Conditioning system needed upgrading; however, to control costs the upgrades had to use the existing I/O. The overall functionality of these two systems is vastly different. Soft control packages proved capable of interfacing with the existing I/O, satisfied the functional needs of the systems, and enhanced the overall functionality of the systems.
Technical Paper

The Lean and Agile Manufacturing Model

1999-04-20
1999-01-1611
The Lean and Agile Manufacturing Simulation Model simulates the concepts of lean and agile manufacturing. A “live” working factory model is used to contrast the operating styles between a typical “mass production” plant and a “lean” production plant. Participants work as a team to plan, fabricate, manufacture, assemble, and ship two types of products using three common manufacturing processes - Traditional Mass Production (Push), Just-In-Time Manufacturing (Pull), and Cellular Manufacturing (Cell). Model functions include; warehousing, fabrication, WIP storage, assembly, inspection, accounting and shipping utilizing a miniature factory model, complete with tools, fixtures, materials and shop floor paperwork transactions. The model initially utilizes a traditional Material Requirements Planning (MRP) based scheduling approach to operate the factory.
Technical Paper

Graphitic Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging

2000-04-02
2000-01-1576
The goal of this program is to utilize the recently developed high conductivity carbon foam for thermal management in electronics (heat exchangers and heat sinks). The technique used to fabricate the foam produces mesophase pitch-based graphitic foam with extremely high thermal conductivity and an open-celled structure. The thermal properties of the foam have been increased by 79% from 106 to 187 W/m·K at a density of 0.56 g/cm3 through process optimization. It has been demonstrated that when the high-thermal-conductivity graphitic foam is utilized as the core material for the heat exchanger, the effective heat transfer can be increased by at least an order of magnitude compared to traditional designs. A once-through-foam core/aluminum-plated heat exchanger has been fabricated for testing in electronic modules for power inverters.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Durability of Cordierite–Based NOx Adsorber/Catalyst Systems for Lean Burn Gasoline Applications

1999-10-25
1999-01-3500
One approach to the remediation of NOx generated under lean automotive engine conditions is its controlled storage and then periodic release and reaction under enriched conditions. This process is being considered for automotive exhaust systems that will be operated pre–dominantly lean for reasons of fuel economy. Because of the special characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the presence of NOx, they are being considered for use, in conjunction with γ–alumina–based washcoats and precious metal catalysts, as NOx catalyst coatings on cellular supports. It is known that alumino–silicates will react with alkali and alkaline earth elements to form stable ceramic phases when mixtures of the components are held in direct contact at elevated temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Laboratory Study of NOX Reduction During the Rich Operating Period Over a NOX Storage Catalyst

1999-10-25
1999-01-3502
The behaviour of a NOx storage catalyst in powdered form and containing a storage component based on alkaline metal was investigated under rich conditions. Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed flow reactor with the space velocity set at 45,000 h-1. From these experiments it was possible to extract the fractional NOx reduction and the efficiency of use of the reductant. With 0.9% CO as a reductant at 350°C, complete utilisation of CO was achieved up to 70% NOx conversion as treatment time was increased. To obtain 90% NOx conversion required longer times, and 23% of the CO did not participate in the reduction of NOX. A reductant balance shows that about 40% of the CO added is used to reduce the catalyst surface when the flow is switched from lean to rich. The ranking of efficiencies of different reductant gases at 350°C gave the following sequence: 0.9% H2 ≈ 0.9% CO > 1285 ppm toluene > 3000 ppm propene ≈ 1125 ppm i-octane > 3000 ppm propane.
Technical Paper

Nox Trap Control by Physically Based Model

1999-10-25
1999-01-3503
For a NOx trap catalyst to work properly, it is important that the times for the lean period and the rich spikes are correctly calculated in the engine management system (EMS). This paper deals with the development of a physically based NOx trap model for implementation in the EMS. The catalyst was divided into different segments (complete mixed cells) to correctly mimic the axial distribution of stored NOx and the axial temperature profile. Furthermore, the model included physical steps as adsorption, desorption, storage and release of NOx. The model also includes the storage and reduction of O2 and a simplified model of the heat release from the oxidation of the reductants. The model could successfully describe the process of storage and release in a short time interval. However, problems to describe the function of the NOx trap occurred after longer time in the vehicle because of inaccurate estimation of the input variables.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

1999-10-25
1999-01-3678
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electrical System in the New Millennium

1999-11-15
1999-01-3747
The automotive industry is investigating the change of electrical system voltage in a vehicle from the present 14 volt (12V battery) to 42 volt (36V battery) to integrate new electrical and electronic features. These new features require more amperes, thicker wires, large power devices, and eventually higher cost. The existing 14V system is very difficult to sustain so much content because of constraints of performance, efficiency, cost, packaging space, and manufacture-ability. This paper discusses foreseeable needs moving to a higher voltage, and reasons of 42V selection. It explores benefits and drawbacks when the voltage is changed from 14V to 42V in the areas of wire harness, power electronics, smart switching, power supply, etc. Finally, two typical 42/14V dual voltage architectures are presented for a likely 42V transition scenario.
Technical Paper

Intelligent DC Power Management System

1999-11-15
1999-01-3749
Most heavy-duty vehicles including trucks, tractors, buses, ambulances, refrigerated trailers, passenger vehicles, electric vehicles and boats have high amp Direct Current systems. Unlike the majority of components and systems in such vehicles, DC electrical systems have undergone very few major improvements in recent years. The Intelligent Power Management System discussed in this paper can offer significant improvements in the DC power management of such vehicles. The primary benefits of this system include: improved reliability of all electrical components, early warning of impending failures, extended service life, optimized generation, storage and use of power, and reduced maintenance cost and vehicle downtime. This paper will describe the Intelligent Power Management System, its design, applications and benefits.
Technical Paper

A Three Year Comparison of Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses

1999-11-15
1999-01-3738
This report details the experiences of two California public transit agencies that replaced aging diesel buses with new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses in 1994. The operating characteristics and costs of 170 natural gas buses are compared with 73 older diesel buses. The natural gas bus fleets have operated well and led to cost reductions in both fleets. The findings are particularly significant because both Sacramento Regional Transit District (RT) and SunLine Transit Agency have been using the same engine-chassis configuration, thus enabling a valid method to combine cost data for a large sample fleet of buses. The data indicate that labor for diesel equipment was almost twice that for CNG vehicles, parts were 25% more and fuel costs were nearly double. In 1997, CNG buses saved RT over $1 million in fuel, maintenance, parts and hazardous waste disposal, a 38% per mile reduction over the cost of their older diesel buses.
Technical Paper

Fast Filling of NGV Fuel Containers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3739
Studies have been published which address fast filling of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) fuel containers. Diggins states that NGV fuel containers cannot be fully filled during a fast fill, and that all-composite fuel containers cannot be filled as full as other types of fuel containers. There are issues in this prior work which may have a significant effect on the author’s conclusions. Fast fill testing conducted by Powertech Labs shows the Lincoln Composites’ fuel container has significantly better fill performance than projected by Diggins. Testing of a dispenser control system by Kountz and Blazek demonstrates all types of fuel containers can be properly filled with proper dispenser control algorithms and performance.
Technical Paper

Anti-Slosh Damper Design for Improving the Roll Dynamic Behavior of Cylindrical Tank Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3729
The slosh forces arising due to liquid motion in partially filled containers affect the roll dynamic stability of tank vehicles. In this paper, a simplified dynamic truck roll model has been developed considering both suspension flexibility and nonlinear dynamics of the liquid cargo motion. A small-scale experimental model for a cylindrical truck tank, excited in the lateral direction, is designed and constructed to measure the viscous damping and damped natural frequency of the liquid cargo. Since the viscous damping of the liquids is limited by its natural characteristics, partitions containing rectangular slots and holes of different sizes are used to generate additional damping. It is fitted against the lateral motion of the liquid slosh, i.e. parallel to and passing through the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. These types of partitions increase the motion damping of the liquid cargo and make the liquid behave like a dynamic absorber.
Technical Paper

The “Space Bus” - Performance, Major Components, and Implications for Engineered Hybrid Drive Systems for Medium and Heavy Hybrid Vehicles

1999-11-15
1999-01-3725
The Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB) was dubbed “Space Bus” by the technicians of the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority because of NASA involvement. Developed as a proof of concept test bed, the HETB has proven the use of ultra-capacitors as a viable energy storage device. In the process, a cost-effective engineered hybrid drive system was also developed. The HETB made its debut at the 1997 SAE Truck and Bus Conference in Cleveland. After the show, the HETB was prepared to complete the first round of proving ground testing under the scrutiny of NASA scientists.
Technical Paper

Separation of Non-Metallic Contaminants in Fluxless Melting and Refining of Magnesium Alloys

2000-03-06
2000-01-1125
Recent growth in automotive applications of magnesium die cast alloys has made the refining and recycling of magnesium scrap a key issue for the automotive and magnesium industries, if growth is to continue. Today, with only a few exceptions, commercially refined and recycled alloy is produced using a variety of flux-based processes. However, fluxless refining, has been the focus of growing interest, particularly for the in-house refining of scrap by the die cast producers. This paper summarizes the results of a study conducted to better understand the behavior of non-metallic contaminants in scrap melts and the requirements for their separation, using argon sparging. Brightness measurements were used to experimentally determine the distribution of non-metallic contaminants within scrap melts both before and after argon treatment.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Environmental and Economic Effects of Infrastructural Requirements

2000-04-26
2000-01-1482
This paper summarizes some of the environmental and economic requirements of providing the infrastructure for alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) at a large scale in the U.S. Major components of the necessary infrastructure are fuel extraction and processing plants, and fuel storage, transportation, distribution and retail systems. The type of fuel, market penetration rates, economies of scale, timely availability, longevity, and refueling mode are key to the assessment of the necessary infrastructure. Some of the infrastructure is already in place, while substantial investments will still be needed. Alcohol fuels could utilize components of the current infrastructure, with modifications, but natural gas and electric vehicles would require substantial new investments into the infrastructure.
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