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Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1502
In this study it is tried to reduce NOx and particulate emissions simultaneously in a direct injection diesel engine based on the concept of two-stage combustion. At initial combustion stage, NOx emission is reduced with fuel rich combustion. At diffusion combustion stage, particulate emission is reduced with high turbulence combustion. The high squish combustion chamber with reduced throat diameter is used to realize two-stage combustion. This combustion chamber is designed to produce strong squish that causes high turbulence. When throat diameter of the high squish combustion chamber is reduced to some extent, simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions is achieved with less deterioration of fuel consumption at retarded injection timing. Further reduction of NOx emission is realized by reducing the cavity volume of the high squish combustion chamber. Analysis by endoscopic high speed photography and CFD calculation describes the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an LPG Lean-Burn Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1513
Performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn engine for heavy duty vehicles were measured. The piston cavity, swirl ratio, propane - butane fuel ratio, and EGR were varied to investigate their effects on combustion, and thus engine performance. Three piston cavities were tested: a circular flat-bottomed cavity with sloped walls (called the “bathtub” cavity), a round bottomed cavity (called the “dog dish” cavity), and a special high-turbulence cavity (called the “nebula” cavity). Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. It was capable of maintaining leaner combustion, thus resulting in the lowest NOx emissions. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, as the propane composition increased, cyclic variation fell, NOx emissions increased, and thermal efficiency was improved.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Approaches to Understanding Soot Aggregation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1516
During 1998, the US Federal authority introduced a requirement for vehicles powered by heavy duty diesel engines that NOx emissions shall be less than 4 g/bhp.h. This represents a 20% reduction over current levels and has prompted significant further hardware changes. As a result of these increasingly tighter NOx emission constraints, soot loading of diesel engine lubricants - due to retarded fuel injection, is becoming an ever more significant issue in crankcase lubricant formulation. For this reason, increased understanding is required of the mechanism of soot particle aggregation and resultant aggregate morphology - together with the likely consequences for the performance of soot-laden lubricants, for viscosity increase, filter blocking, sludging and (directly or indirectly) - soot-induced wear. We describe here a combined experimental and simulation approach to screening formulated lubricants and characterising soot aggregate structures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Load on Emissions and NOx Trap/Catalyst Efficiency for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1528
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested at constant engine speed (2000 rpm) over a range of loads. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. This allowed examination of the engine-out emissions for late and early injection. Regeneration of the lean NOx trap/catalyst was also examined, as was the efficiency of NOx reduction. NOx stored in the trap/catalyst is released at the leading edge of regenerations, such that the tailpipe NOx is higher than the engine-out NOx for a brief period. The efficiency of NOx reduction was <50% for the lowest loads examined. As the load increased, the efficiency of NOx reduction decreased to near 0% due to excessive catalyst temperatures. Loads sufficiently high to require a rich mixture produce high NOx reduction efficiencies, but in this case the NOx reduction occurs via the three-way catalysts on this vehicle.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Reversibility of Sulfur Effects on Emissions of California Low Emission Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1544
The Coordinating Research Council conducted a program to measure the reversibility of fuel sulfur effects on emissions from California Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). Six LEV models were tested using two non-oxygenated conventional Federal fuels with 30 and 630 ppm sulfur. The following emission test sequence was used: 30 ppm fuel to establish a baseline, 630 ppm fuel, and return to 30 ppm fuel. A series of emission tests were run after return to 30 ppm to ensure that emissions had stabilized. The effect of the driving cycle on reversibility was evaluated by using both the LA4 and US06 driving cycles for mileage accumulation between emission tests after return to 30-ppm sulfur fuel. The reversibility of sulfur effects was dependent on the vehicle, driving cycle, and the pollutant. For the test fleet as a whole most but not all of the sulfur effects were reversible.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1851
This study investigates the effects of fuel properties on combustion characteristics and emissions such as NOx, smoke, THC and particulates in a direct-injection diesel engine. Fuel properties, such as cetane number and aromatic content, are varied independently in the experiments to separate their effects. The engine tests are carried out at steady operation with changed load, injection timing and injection pressure. The results show that reducing cetane number results in the increase of NOx and decrease of particulate emission at high load. This is because the low cetane number fuel has the long ignition delay and causes the high maximum heat release rate and the short combustion duration. However, high THC emission is produced at low load for the low cetane number fuel.
Technical Paper

Present Day Diesel Engine Pollutant Emissions: Proposed Model for Refinery Bases Impact

2000-06-19
2000-01-1852
Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns for the coming years. For this reason, car manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and refiners have been exploring development avenues to comply with increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. In such a context, the identification of the most promising improvement options is essential. A research program, carried out by IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole), and supported by FSH (Fonds de Soutien aux Hydrocarbures), IFP, PSA-Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and Renault VI (Véhicules Industriels), has been built to study this point. It is a four years programme with different steps which will focus on new engine technologies: some of them are going to be marketed very soon (gasoline direct injection car engine, and diesel common rail injection car and truck engines) to anticipate the Euro 3 (2000) and the Euro 4 (2005) emissions specifications. The original work reported here is part of this research.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cetane Improver Effects on Regulated Emissions from a Passenger Car Equipped with a Common Rail Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1853
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and di-tertiary-butyl peroxide on the exhaust emissions from a vehicle equipped with a common rail diesel engine. A base fuel in compliance with European 2000 specifications was additized with the two cetane improvers. Additive concentrations were calculated to increase the cetane number by 6.1 points. Emissions were measured with and without the catalytic converter using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test procedure. Both cetane improver additives have the same effect on emissions. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are reduced. Particulate matter (PM) after catalysts is not improved and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions increase slightly. Consumption remains unchanged. The cetane improver additives effect on HC and CO is maximum during the ECE cycle, when catalyst efficiency is low.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Aromatics Type on the Particulate Matter and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1856
The influence of fuel aromatics type on the particulate matter (PM) and NOx exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, DI diesel engine was investigated. Eight fuels were blended from conventional and oil sands crude oil sources to form five fuel pairs with similar densities but with different poly-aromatic (1.6 to 14.6%) or total aromatic (14.3 to 39.0%) levels. The engine was tuned to meet the U.S. EPA 1994 emission standards. An eight-mode, steady-state simulation of the U.S. EPA heavy-duty transient test procedure was followed. The experimental results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the PM and NOx emissions of the five fuel pairs after removing the fuel sulphur content effect on PM emissions. However, there was a definite trend towards higher NOx emissions as the fuel density, poly-aromatic and total aromatic levels of the test fuels increased.
Technical Paper

AQUAZOLE™: An Original Emulsified Water-Diesel Fuel for Heavy-Duty Applications

2000-06-19
2000-01-1861
1 Since 1997 the ELF group has been working on a new fuel designed in priority for use with urban services (buses, lorries). Basically, it is a diesel/water emulsion stabilised by a series of new additives. A lot of testing programmes on engine and vehicles test benches was carried out. They have clearly shown that with this new fuel there is a reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 30% and black smoke by up to 80%, without any technological modifications being necessary as against EN 590 diesel fuel marketed normally. The water content is, however, the cause of a certain loss in engine performances. Nevertheless, hydrocarbon consumption is reduced by up to 4%. The use of an oxidation catalyst is compatible with a water-diesel emulsified fuel and results in larger emission benefits. Furthermore, a 50 ppm sulphur emulsion with a continuously regenerating particle filter give a particle reduction of 90%.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Combustion and Visualisation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1838
This paper details the development of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine with ultra lean burn low emissions potential. Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is used to achieve reliable combustion and low NOx emissions, whilst direct injection is used to improve thermal efficiency and decrease hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. It is found that port inducted propane, port inducted CNG and directly injected CNG all produce negligible levels of CO and NOx when operating at air/fuel ratios higher than λ = 1.8. Furthermore, direct injection of CNG produced approximately 100 ppm C6 less HC emissions than port induction of CNG, and port induction of CNG decreased the HC emissions by around a factor of a third to a half in comparison with port induction of propane.
Technical Paper

UltraThin Wall Catalyst Solutions at Similar Restriction and Precious Metal Loading

2000-06-19
2000-01-1844
FTP and ECE + EUDC emissions are measured from six converters having similar restriction and platinum group metals on two 1999 prototype engines/calibrations. A 2.2L four cylinder prototype vehicle is used to measure FTP emissions and an auto-driver dynamometer with a prototype 2.4L four cylinder engine is used to determine the ECE + EUDC emissions. The catalytic converters use various combinations of 400/3.5 (400cpsi/3.5mil wall), 400/4.5, 400/6.5, 600/3.5, 600/4.5, and 900/2.5 ceramic substrates in order to meet a restriction target and to maximize converter geometric surface area. Total catalyst volume of the converters varies from 1.9 to 0.82 liters. Catalyst frontal area varies from 68 cm2 to 88 cm2. Five of the six converters use two catalyst bricks. The front catalyst brick uses either a three-way Pd washcoat technology containing ceria or a non-ceria Pd washcoat technology. Pd loadings are 0.1 troy oz. of Pd.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon (HC) Reduction of Exhaust Gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Using Different Catalytic Mesh-Coatings

2000-06-19
2000-01-1847
A FeCrAlloy mesh-type catalyst has been used to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a 4-stroke HCCI engine. Significant for the HCCI engine is a high compression ratio and lean mixtures, which leads to a high efficiency, low combustion temperatures and thereby low NOx emissions, <5 pmm, but also low exhaust temperatures, around 300°C. It becomes critical to: 1. Ensure that the HCCI-combustion generates as low HC emissions as possible, this can be done by very precise control of engine inlet conditions and, if possible, compression ratio. 2. Ensure that the exhaust temperature is high enough, without loosing efficiency or producing NOx; in order to get an oxidizing catalyst to work. 3. Select proper catalyst material for the catalyst so that the exhaust temperature can be as low as possible.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions Reduction with Retrofit Catalytic After-Treatment on Small Two Stroke S.I. Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1846
The contribution to environmental pollution due to mopeds and motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke engines is very high. Then European regulations will impose in the next future severe limits on pollutant emissions of such vehicles. Up to 40% of the charge at high load and low speed can be lost during scavenging, therefore exhaust hydrocarbon speciation is similar to fuel composition, i.e. with a comparable content of benzene. The use of rich air-fuel mixtures, necessary to reduce cyclic variations and improve driveability during transients, determines also high carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand NOx emissions are very low in all operating conditions, due to the rich mixtures and the high residual gas fraction. An effective solution to reduce emissions from current two-stroke engines for two wheelers in a short time could be retrofitting circulating vehicles with a catalyst for exhaust after-treatment.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM)

2000-06-19
2000-01-1819
Ultra low emissions and high performance combustion was achieved with a combination of high EGR, a three-way catalyst, and a highly oxygenated liquid fuel, neat dimethoxy methane (DMM), in an ordinary DI diesel engine. The smokeless nature of neat DMM effectively allowed stoichiometric diesel combustion by controlling BMEP with EGR. NOx, THC, and CO emissions were reduced with a three-way catalyst. At lower BMEP with excess air, the EGR effectively reduced NOx. High-speed video in a bottom view type engine revealed that luminous flame decreased with increased fuel oxygen content and almost disappeared with DMM.
Technical Paper

Nissan's Gasoline SULEV Technology

2000-04-02
2000-01-1583
A new gasoline-fueled Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) technology has been developed that meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) most stringent tailpipe emission levels and zero evaporative emissions, while fulfilling all On-Board Diagnostic II (OBD II) requirements. This paper will describe the various new technologies used in achieving the SULEV standards, such as the HC trap system with an ultra-thin wall substrate for the improvement of catalyst light-off time, and an electrically actuated swirl control valve for reducing cold-start emissions. In addition, a control approach to stabilizing NOx emissions will also be discussed.
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