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Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

1988-03-01
871159
A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Ring-Pack Behavior

1999-05-03
1999-01-1521
The ring-pack behavior in a modern gasoline engine represent complicated phenomena. The process of ring pack design consists of two stages: understanding the physical behavior and design synthesis on the systematic manner. Computer models give an inside on the physical processes associated with the ring-pack behavior. Mathematical optimization techniques provide the tools for design synthesis on the systematic way based on an optimal criteria. The mathematical optimization technique was developed and applied to ring pack design synthesis. When applied to the existing engine ring-pack designs, the optimized results indicated the potential for significant reduction in blow-by through the ring-pack by optimizing ring pack geometry. The optimization results were compared with the original ring pack designs for two gasoline engines for a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

The CRC Port Fuel Injector Bench Test Method, Interlaboratory Study, and Vehicle Test Correlation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1548
Port-fuel-injection (PFI) problems were first reported late in 1984. Deposits that formed on the tip of the pintle-type injectors of certain engines restricted fuel flow and caused driveability and emission problems. Responding to this problem, industry test programs were initiated to reproduce the deposits under controlled conditions. In 1986, a vehicle test procedure was identified and the automotive industry recommended a pass/fail performance level. Building upon available information, the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC) Port Fuel Injector Deposit Group developed a standard vehicle test procedure to evaluate various unleaded gasolines for port-fuel-injection fouling. The vehicle test procedure was adopted as an ASTM test method. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of California accepted the procedure as the standard for measuring a gasoline's propensity to form deposits in a pintle-type injector.
Technical Paper

Fuel Quality Control by Mid Infrared Spectroscopy

1999-05-03
1999-01-1546
Gasolines and diesel fuels of wide source were analyzed with the aim to predict the quality through the mid infrared spectroscopy and the algorithms PCA-PCR and PLS. The results revealed that octane number, cetane number, MTBE, benzene, aromatics and specific gravity could be predicted with good reliability. The other relevant fuel physical-chemical characteristics were beyond the precision of the standard test methods.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from In-Use Passenger Vehicles Recruited in Three Locations: CRC Project E-24

1999-05-03
1999-01-1545
FTP-UDDS (urban dynamometer driving schedule) exhaust particulate matter (PM) emission rates were determined for 361 light-duty gasoline (LDGV) and 49 diesel passenger vehicles ranging in model year (MY) from 1965 to 1997. LDGVs were recruited into four MY categories. In addition, special effort was made to recruit LDGVs with visible smoke emissions, since these vehicles may be significant contributors to the mobile source PM emission inventory. Both light and heavy-duty diesels where included in the passenger diesel test fleet, which was insufficient in size to separate into the same MY categories as the LDGVs. Vehicles were tested as-received in three areas: Denver, Colorado; San Antonio, Texas; and the South Coast Air Quality Management District, California. The average PM emission rates were 3.3, 79.9, 384 and 558 mg/mi for 1991-97 MY LDGVs, pre-1981 LDGVs, smoking LDGVs and the diesel vehicles, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2000-06-19
2000-01-1867
The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Converted Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1866
To improve performance and exhaust emissions of a converted dual-fuel natural-gas engine, the effects of basic parameters were experimentally investigated. The results show that diesel fuel operation is favorable at very low loads and that a small amount of pilot fuel with a moderate injection rate is effective for suppressing knock at high loads. As for the charge air throttling, there is an optimal combination of charge amount and equivalence ratio to obtain high thermal efficiency and reduced emissions. An optimal strategy for fueling is demonstrated based on the results. Adequate control of pilot fuel amount, injection timing and throttle opening area gives diesel-equivalent thermal efficiency with very low smoke emission over a wide range of loads.
Technical Paper

Basic Understanding of Activated Radical Combustion and Its Two-Stroke Engine Application and Benefits

2000-06-19
2000-01-1836
For a better understanding of the auto-ignition phenomenon in internal combustion engines, consideration is given from the in-cylinder gas temperature aspect. Experimental results demonstrate that the in-cylinder gas temperature at the end of compression, namely, the “auto-ignition temperature” is deeply involved in the onset of auto-ignition. The relation between the gas exchange state and the auto-ignition temperature explains the mechanism of timing controlled auto-ignition, namely, Activated Radical (AR) Combustion. The auto-ignition temperature is maintained constant during the AR combustion state, thanks to the exhaust valve controlling the hot residual gas amount. Finally, the utilization of auto-ignition in gasoline engines is discussed from the methodology aspect.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

2000-04-02
2000-01-1601
There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry.
Technical Paper

The Development and Performance of a High Blend Ethanol Fueled Vehicle

2000-04-02
2000-01-1602
A 1999 Chevrolet Silverado truck was converted to operate on E85 (a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline). The vehicle design was centered around four primary customer driven goals: maintaining or exceeding the performance of the current gasoline fueled vehicle, improving emissions, constructing a system that can be easily and economically integrated into production, and finally making this system invisible to the operator. Ethanol is a good choice for an alternative fuel, however it has some drawbacks. High ethanol blend fuels can provide lower exhaust and evaporative emissions, higher power, and higher efficiency than engines operating on gasoline. However, cold startability and material compatibility issues must be addressed. This paper describes the design modifications and performance changes resulting from the conversion to dedicated, high ethanol blend fuel operation.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Qualitative Fuel Distribution and Mixture Formation Inside a Transparent GDI Engine with 2D Mie and LIEF Techniques and Comparison to Quantitative Measurements of the Air/Fuel Ratio with 1D Raman Spectroscopy

2000-06-19
2000-01-1793
Mie-Scattering and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) were used to visualize the distribution of liquid fuel and fuel vapor inside an optical accessible one-cylinder research engine with gasoline direct injection (GDI). Using a tracer which was developed especially for the environments of gasoline combustion engines, LIEF enables an extensive separation between liquid and vapor phase and delivers a signal proportional to the equivalence ratio. Simultaneous images of LIEF and Mie scattering proof the high quality of the phase separation using this tracer concept. The mixture formation process will be shown exemplary at one operation point with homogeneous load and another with stratified load. First results of determining the air/fuel ratio by means of linear Raman spectroscopy will be presented and compared with the two-dimensional qualitative distribution of the fuel vapor (LIEF).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of an Optical Direct Injection S.I. Engine Using Fuel-Air Ratio Laser Induced Fluorescence

2000-06-19
2000-01-1794
To provide fuel/air ratio quantitative measurements in an S.I engines, a transparent cylinder engine is investigated with the Fuel-Air Ratio Laser Induced Fluorescence (FARLIF) technique. In a homogeneous mixture, the two dimensional distribution for the fuel/air ratio is calibrated and measured during the compression stroke for different equivalence ratios. After spark ignition, the combustion zone and the flame front are visualized by laser sheet LIF. The direct-injection stratified-charge, new concept for gasoline engines is investigated with FARLIF. In the direct injection gasoline engine where the fuel is directly injected into a cylinder and the flow is highly turbulent, two injection timings are used: -early injection (i.e. during the intake stroke) to promote a homogeneous distribution; -late injection during the compression stroke, to generate a ultra-lean stratified charge.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Durability of Cordierite–Based NOx Adsorber/Catalyst Systems for Lean Burn Gasoline Applications

1999-10-25
1999-01-3500
One approach to the remediation of NOx generated under lean automotive engine conditions is its controlled storage and then periodic release and reaction under enriched conditions. This process is being considered for automotive exhaust systems that will be operated pre–dominantly lean for reasons of fuel economy. Because of the special characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the presence of NOx, they are being considered for use, in conjunction with γ–alumina–based washcoats and precious metal catalysts, as NOx catalyst coatings on cellular supports. It is known that alumino–silicates will react with alkali and alkaline earth elements to form stable ceramic phases when mixtures of the components are held in direct contact at elevated temperatures.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Productionizing a GDI-2 Stroke Spark Ignited Small Displacement Engine Design

1999-09-28
1999-01-3290
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the environmental conditions with which a future two stroke powered vehicle must comply and explains the reasons for which a direct gasoline injection into the combustion chamber offers a potential solution. The paper continues with a description of the fuel/air mixture injection used in the F.A.S.T. concept and gives a detailed overview of the layout of the 125 cc engine to which it is applied. The structure of its electronic engine management system, mandatory for the necessary control precision, is presented. Hereafter is made a short introduction to the visualization and numerical computation tools used for the engine design optimization. The paper concludes with a detailed presentation and discussion of the experimental results obtained with the engine operated, either in steady state and transient conditions on an engine test rig, and mounted in a classic small dimension two-wheel vehicle submitted to road tests.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Sulfur Sensitivity and Reversibility in Late-Model Vehicles

1999-10-25
1999-01-3676
The emissions impact associated with increasing gasoline sulfur content was investigated using eight late-model vehicles, most of which were equipped with advanced emission control systems and certified as California Low-Emission Vehicles. The effect of returning to operation on low-sulfur fuel on emissions was also investigated. Vehicle testing was performed using California Phase 2 Certification test fuels with nominal sulfur levels of 40 and 540 ppm in combination with the LA4 and US06 driving cycles. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, engine-out emissions, air-fuel ratio, catalyst composition, and catalyst temperature data were collected. The data showed that most of the vehicles were sensitive to gasoline sulfur content as emissions increased when the vehicles were operated on the higher-sulfur test fuel; however, the degree of sensitivity varied from vehicle to vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

1999-10-25
1999-01-3675
Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.
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