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Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

1996-04-01
91A128
Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission in Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol-Butane Mixture

1988-03-01
871165
To improve the cold startability of methanol, methanol-butane mixed fuel was experimented. Engine performance and exhaust emissions are obtained with methanol-butane mixed fuel. These characteristics are compared with those of methanol and gasoline. The mixing ratios of methanol and butane are 50:50 (M50), 80:20 (M80), and 90:10 (M90) based on the calorific value. As a result, M90 produces more power than gasoline and more or less than methanol depending on the engine speed and the excess air ratio. Brake horse power of M90 is higher than that of gasoline by 5 - 10 %, and brake specific fuel consumption is smaller than that of gasoline by 17 % to the maximum based on the calorific value. NOx emission concentrations for M90 are lower than those for gasoline and higher than those for methanol because of the effect of butane, CO emission concentrations are somewhat lower than those for methanol and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

1988-03-01
871171
In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

1988-03-01
871159
A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of the Unsteady Laminar Flame Propagation in a Closed Cylindrical Combustion Bomb

1988-03-01
871174
Unsteady laminar flame propagation confined in a closed cylindrical combustion bomb is studied by numerical computation for an axisymmetric two-dimensional laminar flame. Computation includes complete two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations of change for a chemically reacting propane-air mixture. Implicit Continuous fluid Eulerian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite difference technique, simplified reaction kinetics models, and artificial flame stretching transformation and inverse transformation were adopted in the calculation. Physically realistic flame behavior can be demonstrated even with rather coarse computing cell size, simplified reaction kinetics models, and personal computer level low power computing machines.
Technical Paper

Some New Diagnostic Parameters for Reciprocating Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1714
Condition monitoring through signal analysis is not as well established for reciprocating engines as it is for rotating machines. One of the reason is that it has to deal with non-stationary vibrations. In this paper, some new statistical indicators are defined for the detection and separation of close transient events. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, for instance for valve mechanics or for combustion rises. Their performances are compared on real vibrations of a small 4 cylinder diesel engine and it is finally verified that they allow the reconstruction of the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate from a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1502
In this study it is tried to reduce NOx and particulate emissions simultaneously in a direct injection diesel engine based on the concept of two-stage combustion. At initial combustion stage, NOx emission is reduced with fuel rich combustion. At diffusion combustion stage, particulate emission is reduced with high turbulence combustion. The high squish combustion chamber with reduced throat diameter is used to realize two-stage combustion. This combustion chamber is designed to produce strong squish that causes high turbulence. When throat diameter of the high squish combustion chamber is reduced to some extent, simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions is achieved with less deterioration of fuel consumption at retarded injection timing. Further reduction of NOx emission is realized by reducing the cavity volume of the high squish combustion chamber. Analysis by endoscopic high speed photography and CFD calculation describes the experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Investigation of Multi-Stage Fuel Injection in a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1501
Increasing concern about the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment has led to ever more stringent emission legislation, and the introduction of more sophisticated equipment to enable the requirements to be achieved. One way of improving the emissions from direct injection (DI) diesel engines is to use multi-stage fuel injection, and an investigation performed on such a system is reported in this paper. In this case, the multi-stage fuel injector caused an increase in the exhaust smoke at low load, and an in-cylinder photographic technique was used to examine why this occurred. A multi-stage fuel injector with a VCO nozzle was fitted to a small, high-speed, direct injection diesel engine fitted with a transparent piston for optical access. The combustion process was filmed using a high-speed 16 mm cine camera, and the fuel injection process was illuminated by a high power, copper-vapour laser.
Technical Paper

A Six-Stroke DI Diesel Engine Under Dual Fuel Operation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1500
A six-stroke DI diesel engine proposed by the authors had second compression and combustion processes which were added on a conventional four-stroke diesel engine. This engine had the first and second power strokes before the exhaust stroke. Numerical predictions and experiments previously carried out had shown that this six-stroke diesel engine could reduce NO exhaust emission. Further, the ignition delay of the second combustion process could be shortened by a high temperature effect in the second compression stroke. This advantage of short ignition delay could be utilized for an ignition improvement of a fuel with low cetane number. In the engine system reported here, a conventional diesel fuel was supplied as the fuel of first combustion process, and in the second combustion process, methanol was supplied.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of the Injection-Combustion Process in a D.I. Diesel Engine Running with Rape Oil Methyl Ester

1999-05-03
1999-01-1497
The objective of the work presented here is to evaluate the potential of rape oil methyl ester (RME) to improve the combustion process in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with high-pressure common-rail injection system. The study, based on the comparison of three different fuels (standard gas-oil, RME and 30% RME/gas-oil mixture), takes into account the main aspects that control Diesel combustion, from the injection rate characteristics to the spray behaviour characterised using an optical pressurised chamber. This global study of the whole injection-combustion process allows identifying some causes of the decrease in pollutant emissions observed when the engine operates with RME.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an LPG Lean-Burn Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1513
Performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn engine for heavy duty vehicles were measured. The piston cavity, swirl ratio, propane - butane fuel ratio, and EGR were varied to investigate their effects on combustion, and thus engine performance. Three piston cavities were tested: a circular flat-bottomed cavity with sloped walls (called the “bathtub” cavity), a round bottomed cavity (called the “dog dish” cavity), and a special high-turbulence cavity (called the “nebula” cavity). Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. It was capable of maintaining leaner combustion, thus resulting in the lowest NOx emissions. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, as the propane composition increased, cyclic variation fell, NOx emissions increased, and thermal efficiency was improved.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Ring-Pack Behavior

1999-05-03
1999-01-1521
The ring-pack behavior in a modern gasoline engine represent complicated phenomena. The process of ring pack design consists of two stages: understanding the physical behavior and design synthesis on the systematic manner. Computer models give an inside on the physical processes associated with the ring-pack behavior. Mathematical optimization techniques provide the tools for design synthesis on the systematic way based on an optimal criteria. The mathematical optimization technique was developed and applied to ring pack design synthesis. When applied to the existing engine ring-pack designs, the optimized results indicated the potential for significant reduction in blow-by through the ring-pack by optimizing ring pack geometry. The optimization results were compared with the original ring pack designs for two gasoline engines for a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Properties on Exhaust Odor in DI Diesel Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1531
Exhaust odor of DI diesel engines is worse than that of gasoline engines, especially at low temperatures and at idling. As the number of passenger cars with DI diesel engines is increasing worldwide because of their low CO2 emissions, odor reduction research of DI diesel engines is important. Incomplete combustion is a major cause of exhaust odor. Generally, odor worsens due to overleaning of the mixture in the cylinder and due to fuel adhering on the combustion chamber walls. To confirm this, the influences of different engine running conditions and fuel properties were investigated. The reason for the changes in exhaust odor with injection timing is evaluated by considerations of optimum positions of the maximum heat release. With n-heptane, a low boiling point fuel, odorous emissions increase because of overleaning of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Arctic Engine Oil (OEA-30)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1523
U.S. Army arctic engine oil, MIL-L-46167B, designated OEA, provides excellent low-temperature operation and is multi functional. It is suitable for crankcase lubrication of reciprocating internal combustion engines and for power-transmission fluid applications in ground equipment. However, this product required 22-percent derated conditions in the two-cycle diesel engine qualifications test. Overall, OEA oil was limited to a maximum ambient temperature use of 5°C for crankcase applications. The technical feasibility of developing an improved, multi functional arctic engine oil for U.S. military ground mobility equipment was investigated. The concept was proven feasible, and the new oil, designated as OEA-30, has exceptional two-cycle diesel engine performance at full engine output and can be operated beyond the 5°C maximum ambient temperature limit of the MIL-L-46167B product.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Studies on Closed-Cycle Diesel Engines

1999-05-03
1999-01-1536
This paper describes work aimed at developing an underwater power system and an environmental control EGR system based on the recycle and closed-cycle operations of conventional diesel engines. Particular emphasis is placed on one of the key problems associated with the recycling some of carbon dioxide in closed-cycle diesel engine (CCDE). A quasi-dimensional model has been developed to investigate the effects of different intake compositions on engine performances. The paper also introduces the development of instrumentaion for measurement and control combustion conditions in CCDE. With the objective of improving fuel ignitability and reducing the ignition delay, the paper experimentally investigates the effects of heated fuel on fuel injection characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emissions in DI and IDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The CRC Port Fuel Injector Bench Test Method, Interlaboratory Study, and Vehicle Test Correlation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1548
Port-fuel-injection (PFI) problems were first reported late in 1984. Deposits that formed on the tip of the pintle-type injectors of certain engines restricted fuel flow and caused driveability and emission problems. Responding to this problem, industry test programs were initiated to reproduce the deposits under controlled conditions. In 1986, a vehicle test procedure was identified and the automotive industry recommended a pass/fail performance level. Building upon available information, the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC) Port Fuel Injector Deposit Group developed a standard vehicle test procedure to evaluate various unleaded gasolines for port-fuel-injection fouling. The vehicle test procedure was adopted as an ASTM test method. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of California accepted the procedure as the standard for measuring a gasoline's propensity to form deposits in a pintle-type injector.
Technical Paper

Fuel Quality Control by Mid Infrared Spectroscopy

1999-05-03
1999-01-1546
Gasolines and diesel fuels of wide source were analyzed with the aim to predict the quality through the mid infrared spectroscopy and the algorithms PCA-PCR and PLS. The results revealed that octane number, cetane number, MTBE, benzene, aromatics and specific gravity could be predicted with good reliability. The other relevant fuel physical-chemical characteristics were beyond the precision of the standard test methods.
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