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Technical Paper

Estimation of Speciation Data for Hydrocarbons using Data Science

2021-09-05
2021-24-0081
Strict regulations on air pollution motivates clean combustion research for fossil fuels. To numerically mimic real gasoline fuel reactivity, surrogates are proposed to facilitate advanced engine design and predict emissions by chemical kinetic modelling. However, chemical kinetic models could not accurately predict non-regular emissions, e.g. aldehydes, ketones and unsaturated hydrocarbons, which are important air pollutants. In this work, we propose to use machine-learning algorithms to achieve better predictions. Combustion chemistry of fuels constituting of 10 neat fuels, 6 primary reference fuels (PRF) and 6 FGX surrogates were tested in a jet stirred reactor. Experimental data were collected in the same setup to maintain data uniformity and consistency under following conditions: residence time at 1.0 second, fuel concentration at 0.25%, equivalence ratio at 1.0, and temperature range from 750 to 1100K.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel by Reforming with Cross-Metathesis Reaction

2021-09-21
2021-01-1205
The boiling point curve of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel fuel, can be adapted to that of diesel fuel by breaking FAME down into a low-molecular structure using a cross-metathesis reaction with a short-chain olefin. Reformulated FAME by a metathesis reaction consists mainly of medium-chain olefins and fatty acid methyl esters. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emissions from reformulated FAME were investigated through engine bench tests. Surrogate fuels made from typical chemical components of reformulated FAME were used to clarify the effects of respective components upon combustion. Surrogate fuels were made by mixing 1-decene, 1-tetradecene, methyl laurate, methyl palmitate, and methyl oleate to simulate the boiling point, oxygen mass concentration, and calorific value of reformed biodiesel of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). A single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with common-rail-type injection system was used.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sustainable Alternative Fuel from Waste Coffee Grounds

2021-09-21
2021-01-1206
In the frame of circular economy, wastes are perceived as sources not only for the recovery of high added-value compounds but also for energy production. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages with the consumption continuously increasing and generating huge amounts of solid residues in return. This solid waste after the extraction of the coffee beverage is known as Waste or Spent Coffee Grounds (WCG). Among others, the valorization has the potential to be directed as a bioresource for sustainable energy and particularly for the production of alternative liquid fuels for internal combustion engines. The aim of the current study is to formulate alternative fuel from WCG and to examine the fundamental properties per relevant specifications and requirements. Parameters related to stability, cold flow properties, lubricating characteristics and ignition quality are studied in comparison with other types of biodiesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxidation Upon Long-term Storage of Karanja Biodiesel on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1200
The presence of unsaturated methyl esters in biodiesel makes it susceptible to oxidation and fuel quality degradation upon long-term storage. In the present work, the effects of oxidation of Karanja biodiesel upon long-term storage on the combustion and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty truck diesel engine are studied. The Karanja biodiesel is stored for one year in a 200 litres steel barrel at room conditions to mimic commercial storage conditions. The results obtained show that compared to diesel, the start of injection of fresh and aged biodiesels are advanced by ~2-degree crank angle, and the ignition delay time is reduced. Aged biodiesel showed a slightly smaller ignition delay compares to fresh biodiesel. The fuel injection and combustion characteristics of fresh and aged biodiesels were similar at all the load conditions. Both fresh and aged biodiesels produced higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and lower smoke emissions compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Evolution and Future Development of Vehicle Fuel Specification in China

2021-09-21
2021-01-1201
Fuel quality has a significant influence on the combustion engine operation. In recent years the increasing concerns about environmental protection, energy saving, energy security and the requirements of protecting fuel injection and aftertreatment systems have been major driving forces for the Chinese fuel specification evolution. The major property changes in the evolution of Chinese national gasoline and diesel standards are introduced and the reasons behind these changes are analyzed in this paper. The gasoline fuel development from State I to State VI-B involved a decrease of sulfur, manganese, olefins, aromatics and benzene content. The diesel fuel quality improvement from State I to State VI included achieving low sulfur fuels and a cetane number (CN) increase. Provincial fuel standards, stricter than corresponding national standards, were implemented in economically developed areas in the past.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Biodiesel Production from Sardine Fish Oil Methyl Ester Using Microwave Assisted Transesterification Method Using Response Surface Methodology

2021-09-21
2021-01-1202
This study presents a demonstration of generating biodiesel from fish oil utilising microwave with a significant reduction in the amount of catalyst needed during the reaction and the time of reaction. Various factors such as microwave power, catalyst concentration, reaction duration, and molar ratio were tested experimentally. The response surface approach was used to improve the reaction parameters. As reaction parameters, four levels were chosen: molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time. According to the RSM model results, molar ratio has a crucial role in the transesterification of fish oil to bio diesel. Confirmatory tests were carried out to validate the acquired data, and they proved to be worthwhile.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Water Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operated with Biodiesel Fuel

2021-09-21
2021-01-1207
In-cylinder emission control methods for simultaneous reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are gaining attention due to stringent emission targets and the higher cost of after-treatment systems. In addition, there is a renewed interest in using carbon-neutral biodiesel due to global warming concerns with fossil diesel. The bi-directional NOx-PM trade-off is reduced to a unidirectional higher NOx emission problem with biodiesel. The effect of water injection with biodiesel with low water quantities is relatively unexplored and is attempted in this investigation to mitigate higher NOx emissions. The water concentrations are maintained at 3, 6, and 9% relative to fuel mass by varying the pulse width of a low-pressure port fuel injector. Considering the corrosive effects of water at higher concentrations, they are maintained below 10% in the present work.
Technical Paper

Evaporation Characteristics of Fuels for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Applications

2021-09-21
2021-01-1210
The research on reducing emissions from automotive engines through modifications in the combustion mode and the fuel type is gaining momentum because of the increasing contribution to global warming by the transportation sector. The combustion and emission formation in the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) engine strategies are susceptible to fuel molecular composition and properties. Ignition timing in LTC strategies is primarily controlled by fuel composition and associated chemical kinetics. Thus, tailoring of fuel properties is required to address the limitations of LTC in terms of lack of control on ignition timing and narrow engine operating load range. Utilizing fuel blends and additives such as nanoparticles is a promising approach to achieving targeted fuel property. An improved understanding of fundamental processes, including fuel evaporation, is required due to its role in fuel-air mixing and emission formation in LTC.
Technical Paper

Experimentation and Comparison of Engine Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Algae, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel with CeO2 Fuel Additive in a Military Heavy Duty 582 kW CIDI Diesel Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1209
Global warming due to exhaust emissions, rapid depletion of crude oil, and strict carbon control legislation has forced researchers to search biofuels as substitute for petroleum diesel fuels. Biodiesel is a renewable and oxygenated fuel. It is free from sulfur, non-toxic and a biodegradable. The different non-edible vegetable oils such as Algae, Karanja and Jatropha could be used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel is a green fuel with an exception that it emits 15-20% more NOx as compared to diesel fuel. The emissions of nanoparticles are more hazardous to human health. The nanoparticles emission of biodiesel must be measured according to the new strict regulations. The engine performance and the lower emission characteristics, except for NOx emission, for Algae, Karanja and Jatropha oil biodiesels are similar to those of diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of North American Certification Test Fuels on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1225
Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on three Class III on-highway motorcycles produced for the North American market and equipped with advanced emission control technologies in order to inform emissions inventories and compare the impacts of existing Tier 2 (E0) fuel with more market representative Tier 3 and LEV III certification fuels with 10% ethanol. For this study, the motorcycles were tested over the US Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) certification test cycles as well as a sample of real-world motorcycle driving informally referred to as the Real World Driving Cycle (RWDC). The primary interest was to understand the emissions changes of the selected motorcycles with the use of certification fuels containing 10% ethanol compared to 0% ethanol over the three test cycles.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Jets Characterization by Means of CFD Numerical Simulation Using an Open FOAM Density-Based Solver

2021-09-05
2021-24-0057
Among the others, natural gas (NG) is regarded as a potential solution to enhance the environmental performance of internal combustion engines. Low carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, worldwide relatively homogeneous distribution and reduced price are the reason as, lately, many researchers efforts have been put in this area. In particular, this work focuses on the characterization of the injection process inside a constant volume chamber (CVC), which could provide a contribution to the development of direct injection technologies for a gaseous fuel. Direct injection of a gaseous fuel involves the presence of under-expanded jets whose knowledge is fundamental to achieve the proper mixture formation prior to the combustion ignition. For this reason, a density based solver was developed within the OpenFOAM library in order to simulate the jet issued from an injector suitable for direct injection of methane.
Technical Paper

High Load Lean SI-Combustion Analysis of DI Methane and Gasoline Using Optical Diagnostics with Endoscope

2021-09-05
2021-24-0046
Homogeneous lean spark-ignited combustion is known for its thermodynamic advantages over conventional stoichiometric combustion but remains a challenge due to combustion instability, engine knock and NOx emissions especially at higher engine loads above the naturally aspirated limit. Investigations have shown that lean combustion can partly suppress knock, which is why the concept may be particularly advantageous in high load, boosted operation in downsized engines with high compression ratios. However, the authors have previously shown that this is not true for all cases due to the appearance of a lean load limit, which is defined by the convergence of the knock limit and combustion stability limit. Therefore, further research has been conducted with the alternative and potentially renewable fuel methane which has higher resistance to autoignition compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Three Way Catalyst Behavior Under Steady and Transient Operations in a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Fueled Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0074
Methane abatement in the exhaust gas of natural gas engines is much more challenging in respect to the oxidation of other higher order hydrocarbons. Under steady state λ sweep, the methane conversion efficiency is high at exact stoichiometric, and decreases steeply under both slightly rich and slightly lean conditions. Transient lean to rich transitions can improve methane conversion at the rich side. Previous experimental work has attributed the enhanced methane conversion to activation of methane steam reforming. The steam reforming rate, however, attenuates over time and the methane conversion rate gradually converges to the low steady state values. In this work, a reactor model is established to predict steady state and transient transition characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) mounted in the exhaust of a natural gas heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particle Measurement and Assessment of Their Volatile Fraction at Exhaust of a Four Cylinder GDI Engine Fueled with E10 and E85 Under Transient Conditions

2021-09-05
2021-24-0087
In view of the new emission regulations seeking to lower the particle cut-off size down to the current 23 nm, an extensive comprehension on the nature of sub-23 nm particles is crucial. In this regard, a new challenge lies ahead considering an even more massive use of biofuels. The objective of this research study was to characterize the sub-23 nm particles and to evaluate their volatile organic fraction (VOF) from a high performance, 1.8 L gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). Particle emissions were measured through an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) capable of particle sizing and counting in the range 5.6 - 560 nm. The sampling and conditioning were performed by both a single diluter and the Dekati Engine Exhaust Diluter (DEED) a Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) compliant sample conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Oxidative Reactivity of Soot Particles Generated from the Combustion of Conventional Diesel, HVO and OME Collected in Particle Filter Structures

2021-09-05
2021-24-0085
The reduction of CO2 emissions in transport and power generation is currently a key challenge. One particular opportunity of CO2 reduction is the introduction of low CO2 or even CO2 neutral fuels. The combustion characteristics of such fuels are different and require engine settings modification. In addition, emissions characteristics differ significantly among different fuels. In the present study a one cylinder diesel engine was operated with conventional diesel, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and polyoxymethyl dimethyl ether (OME) as well as a series of blends. Particle filter segments were positioned in the exhaust of the engine and loaded with particles originating from the combustion of these fuels. The filter segments have been regenerated individually in a specifically designed and developed controlled temperature soot oxidation apparatus.
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Emission Reduction Potential of Diesel-Methanol Blends in a Heavy-Duty Genset Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0104
One of the most promising fuel alternatives for Diesel is Methanol. The fuel is regarded advantageous owing to the easy availability of raw materials for its production, its low cost and high Oxygen content that has potential to reduce emissions of smoke, CO and PM. Methanol as a fuel blend with Diesel is non-viable as they are not readily miscible with each other. This paper expounds the engine performance and emission evaluation of blending Methanol with Diesel by using two methods that aid in overcoming phase separation. The experiments were performed in two stages. In the first stage, investigation of phase stabilization of Methanol in Diesel with suitable additive concentration was performed. This was performed to determine the optimum additive and its concentration for a Methanol share of up to 25% in Diesel-Methanol blends for a stabilization period of 30 days.
Technical Paper

Chemical Reactivity Control of DME/Ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion

2021-09-21
2021-01-1176
The use of renewable fuels in place of conventional hydrocarbon fuels can minimize the carbon footprint of internal combustion engines. DME has been treated as a suitable surrogate to diesel fuel because of its high reactivity and soot-less combustion characteristics. The lower energy density of DME fuel demands a higher fuel supply rate to match the engine loads compared to diesel, which was achieved through prolonged injection duration and larger nozzle holes. When used as a pilot fuel to control the combustion behavior in a dual-fuel application, the fuel energy delivery rate becomes less critical allowing the use of a standard diesel common-rail injector for DME direct injection. In this work, the combustion of DME-Ethanol dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition was experimentally investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Adsorption/Desorption Process in SI Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1184
Ethanol is regarded as a potential alternative fuel for combustion engine as it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher efficiency and higher octane rating. However, the solubility of ethanol in oil can effect lubricant quality. The impact of ethanol-blend gasoline on lubricants is a matter of concern that must be addressed. With this in mind, the current study investigates the effect of blending ethanol with gasoline on the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism. The blends used for the study are E0, E5, E10, and E15. The study is carried out with the help of a mathematical model that predicts the fuel adsorbed/desorbed in the oil layer of an engine. The mathematical model predictions are compared to experimental results obtained on a single-cylinder gasoline engine. Fuel adsorbed in the oil layer ranges from 0.46% for E0 fuel to 0.35% for E15 fuel. Similarly, the desorbed fuel ranges from 0.45% to 0.29% as the ethanol fraction increases from 0% to 15%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol-Blended Fuel on Combustion Characteristics, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0356
Ethanol fuel blends with gasoline for spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines are widely used on account of their advantages in terms of fuel economy and emissions reduction potential. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of these blends on combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure profiles, gas-phase emissions (e.g., unburned hydrocarbons, NOx) and particulates (e.g., particulate matter and particle number) using both measurement campaigns and digital engineering workflows. Nineteen load-speed operating points in a 1L 3-cylinder GDI SI engine were measured and modelled. The measurements for in-cylinder pressure and emissions were repeated at each operating point for three types of fuel: gasoline (E0, 0% by volume of ethanol blend), E10 (10 % by volume of ethanol blend) and E20 (20% by volume of ethanol blend).
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