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Fuel System Design Considerations for Composite Based Fuel Components

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering design guidelines and reference data useful to ensure composite materials used in fuel system components are compatible with an aircraft fuel system. This AIR is not a complete design manual, but offers insight into key aspects of composition design that must be adequately researched and verified before being used in a fuel system.

Fuel System Definitions and Glossary of Terms

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) comprises the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations that are used in Aircraft Fuel Systems.

Contamination definition for Fuel Tank Inerting Systems

The scope of this document is to provide a guidance of the common contamination types and their concentrations in order to size FTIS components and characterize its performance on generic commercial aircraft.

Considerations for Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) / Arc Fault Circuit Breaker (AFCB) for fuel pumps power circuit protection installation, specification and testing

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide guidance for installing GFI/AFCB in the fuel pumps power circuits for protection of fuel vapors ignition inside the tank in case of a failure that causing arcing inside the pump. Besides, this AIR is also intended to provide minimum specification and testing for ground fault interrupter (GFI) and arc fault circuit breaker (AFCB), addressing the issues associated with the verification requirements based on current regulatory guidance per AC25.981-1C.

Lubrication System Oil Tank Sizing

This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides the considerations appropriate for Engine Lubrication System Oil Tank sizing, and provides means to confirm the oil volume held within the Oil Tank is adequate for satisfactory Lubrication System performance. Two scenarios should be considered when demonstrating that the Oil Tank capacity and oil volume held within the Oil Tank are adequate, sea level engine testing and in-flight operation, when demonstrating the capability of Lubrication System to operate in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.

Optical equipment safety in fuel tanks

This project aims to develop a framework of requirements which support safe installation and operation of optical devices within an aircraft fuel tank, specifically: 1: To determine optical power and energy limits which ensure safe operation of optical installations within an aircraft fuel tank over aircraft life and under all phases of flight, taking the limits provided in IEC 60079-28:20015 as a starting point. 2: To demonstrate optical and electrical power and energy equivalences, where possible. 3: To determine requirements for optical installations, including bonding and electrostatic discharge for non-conductive components such as optical fibres. 4: To provide guidelines for analysis of the hazards presented by the typical internal components of optical devices, such as failure modes of photo diodes and cells.

Recommended Design and Test Requirements for Quantity Measuring Hydraulic Fuses

1. SCOPE This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations for design and test requirements for quantity measuring hydraulic fuses. 1.1 Purpose The recommended requirements contained in this ARP are compiled for inclusion, as applicable, in a Procurement Specification for this type of hydraulic fuse. NOTES: 1. The recommended requirements in this ARP should be reviewed by the procuring activity and only those requirements that are applicable for a specific application should be incorporated in the Procurement Specification. 2.

Commercial Aircraft Hydraulic System Sizing

This document provides guidelines for sizing commercial aircraft hydraulic systems including determining the hydraulic flow demands for all phases of flight and hence sizing of the hydraulic pumps. In addition, details of sizing of hydraulic reservoirs and pipelines are also provided.

Hydraulic Pump Minimum Inlet Pressure Test

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice contains technical information for conducting and evaluating Minimum Inlet Pressure for Hydraulic Piston Pumps. The methods used were prepared by system designers and hydraulic engineers from the aerospace industry and government services as part of the SAE Committee A-6, Aerospace Fluid Power, Actuation, and Control Technologies, committee meetings. This practice is intended to provide a standard method to compare pump performance and is not intended to replicate aircraft architecture.

Engine Fuel System and Component Icing Test

This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.

Performance Evaluation of Fuel Filter Elements Utilized in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine/APU Main Fuel Systems

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews performance testing of fuel filter elements utilized in aircraft gas turbine engine/APU fuel systems and discusses a sequence of standard tests used to qualify fuel filter element performance. This allows both manufacturer and customer a common means to specify, control, and evaluate filter elements. The methodology discussed should be incorporated in fuel filter element specifications.

Fuel Tank Inerting System Ground and Flight Test Methodology Recommended Practice

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the verification and certification of a “commercial” fixed wing aircraft fuel tank inerting system (FTIS) and will provide technical references and data regarding ground and flight testing of an FTIS. The intent of this ARP is to address issues associated with the verification requirements based on current regulatory guidance per AC25.981-2C
Technical Paper

Problems in Transport-Airplane Design

MAJOR problems that have been encountered in the operation under contract of that portion of the Transcontinental Air Mail line between Chicago and San Francisco are outlined and discussed briefly. The more serious difficulties cited are: first, the operation of a single type of airplane from points at altitudes as great as 6400 ft. as well as at sea level, together with the fact that, in the case of this particular line, the heaviest loads are carried between the points of greatest altitude; second, the proper design of cowling and manifolding for the operation of the air-cooled radial engine at the extremes of temperature that are encountered throughout the year; and, third, the need for an engine that is geared down to the propeller or an engine delivering its normal power at a lower engine-speed.
Technical Paper

Air-Transport Maintenance Problems from the Service Viewpoint

VIEWS of the maintenance chiefs of all major air-transport lines, based upon their experiences in this field and as transmitted by them through the Maintenance Committee of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc., are embodied in the paper. Representing as it does the collective experience of the best minds in the field, the paper is particularly significant and worthy of the consideration of manufacturers, engineers and others directly concerned with the problems presented. As to fuselage and wing coverings, it is stated that fabric has a definite advantage when considering weight and emergency repairs. Airplanes covered with fabric can be restored to service quickly in cases where, with the same damage, replacement of other forms of covering would cause the plane to be laid up in the shop at a time when it is most needed. With the new improved finishes, fabric is said to be as satisfactory as any covering available.
Technical Paper


THE author divides this discussion of the problems likely to be encountered in the installation of the turbo-jet engine to very high-speed aircraft as follows: 1. Coordination of the design of the engine air inlet duct so as to bring the air to the engine inlet with minimum loss in total pressure and maintain even distribution across the face of the engine inlet. 2. Engine suspension. 3. Engine fuel system. 4. Engine lubrication system. 5. Instrumentation necessary to check proper engine operation. 6. Cooling of engine accessories. 7. Turbo-jet engine control system. He also mentions briefly the problems involved in turbine-propeller engine installations.
Technical Paper


This paper discusses the problems involved in the design and development of an ejector cooling system for the XR-10 Helicopter power plant. Basic design problems are reviewed. Test experience on exhaust stacks, nozzles, mixing chambers, diffusers, baffles, carburetors and engines are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Full-Scale Engine Performance Characteristics of AVIATION SAFETY-TYPE FUELS

TESTS conducted on a full-scale aircraft engine show that satisfactory engine operation can be obtained at warmed-up conditions with low-volatility fuels of the safety type. The engine used in the tests was modified for direct cylinder fuel injection, as fuels of this type are not sufficently volatile to be satisfactorily vaporized by means of a carburetor induction system. Knock-limited performance, specific fuel consumption, and oil dilution characteristics were studied in these tests.