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Book

Everything Works Wonderfully

2014-07-01
EVERYTHING WORKS WONDERFULLY is a 250-page A4 softback book written to provide a structured source of guidance and reference information on Servitization and the management of physical assets for people at all levels in industry: • Senior executives considering the expansion of their businesses into the provision of Asset Management services for the products they design and manufacture; • Middle management wishing to know what needs to be done to look after the assets they are responsible for and who to approach for help; • ‘Hands-on’ engineers looking for contacts and advice on detailed tools and techniques. • Academics may also find the book useful as a source of contacts and ideas for research.
Technical Paper

Is There a Need for Human Factors and Error Management in General and Corporate Aviation?

1999-04-20
1999-01-1595
This paper explores the need for human factors and error management within the context of the general and corporate aviation environments. It discusses strategies currently employed in other segments of the aviation industry and how they might be utilized in the corporate and general aviation arenas. It also relates research findings and program successes experienced within the airline industry and makes recommendations as to how a consortial effort by industry organizations might be utilized to employ these strategies in corporate and general aviation operations.
Technical Paper

Corporate Aviation on the Leading Edge: Systemic Implementation of Macro-human Factors in Aviation Maintenance

1999-04-20
1999-01-1596
While majority of the airlines are struggling to implement macro human factors principles in their maintenance activities, at least eleven corporate aviation departments (CADs) in the country are showing signs of success. The implementation philosophy of these CADs differs from others, and from the airlines in one fundamental aspect: it enforces a behavior change rather than an attitude change among the CAD employees. Consequently, they strive to achieve an employee behavior which is consistent within and across their flight operations, maintenance, and management functions. Ethnographic research was conducted at one of the eleven eligible sites to develop a theoretical model which is representative of the structure, the strategy, and the processes used by these aviation departments to implement macro human factors principles in aviation maintenance. This model was then tested at three other CADs that have a implemented similar approach.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Hole Quality Study in High Speed Drilling of Composite and Aluminum Sheet Metal

1999-04-20
1999-01-1564
Drilling is one of the most widely applied manufacturing operations. Millions of holes are drilled today in manufacturing industries especially in aerospace industry where high quality holes are essential. Rejection and rework rate of the products because of the bad hole is quite high. In this research graphite/honeycomb composite material and aluminum sheet metal has been used. The results show that drill geometry, speed and feed rate have substantial effects on the hole quality and also there was gradual variation of the thrust and lateral forces with feed rates.
Technical Paper

Activities of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Weather Research Program

1999-04-20
1999-01-1578
Weather is a major cause of aircraft accidents and incidents and the single largest contributor to air traffic system delays. Through improvements in the knowledge of current weather conditions and reliable forecasts, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can improve aviation safety, increase system capacity, and enhance flight planning and fuel efficiency. The FAA has established an Aviation Weather Research (AWR) program to address specific requirements for weather support to aviation by providing the capability to generate more accurate and accessible weather observations, warnings, and forecasts and also by increasing the scientific understanding of atmospheric processes that spawn aviation weather hazards. The goal of AWR is to provide meteorological research that leads to the satisfaction of specific aviation weather requirements.
Technical Paper

Beech AT-10 Wichita

2000-05-09
2000-01-1679
This paper describes the design and development of the Beech AT-10 multi-engine pilot transitional trainer. It also covers the use of the AT-10 as a research aircraft.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Simulation as R&D Tool

2000-04-26
2000-01-1500
Life-Cycle Simulation (LCS) is an inventory modeling approach to replace the “snap-shot” character of life-cycle inventories. Requirements of Life Cycle R&D tools and possibilities of LCS will be discussed. The goal of Life Cycle Simulation is holistic optimization of products and technologies, i.e. technical performance, economic efficiency and ecoefficiency. Worldwide applied automotive painting concepts and new painting strategies have been investigated with the LCS approach. Significant economic and environmental optimization potentials have been identified which meet the high technical performance requirements of the automotive painting process.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Implementing an Error Management Program into General Aviation Organizations

2000-05-09
2000-01-1704
Error containment in aircraft maintenance is not only a function of the individual worker, but also reflection of the on-going organizational activities and tasks (Harle, 1994), regardless whether that may encompass a shop of one person or several hundred workers. These organizational structures, general aviation shops or larger airline maintenance divisions, are not simple in nature, but take on complicated appearances - which require different and tailored patterns of responses for effective error management control. Purdue, in it’s applied human factors research of error control, has found some common effective approaches in small and large organizations that provide flexible starting points for growing solutions in reducing aircraft maintenance incidents.
Technical Paper

Best Practices in the Design and Deployment of Light Reconfigurable Assembly Systems

2000-05-16
2000-01-1764
Best Practices in the Design and Deployment of Light Reconfigurable Assembly Systems Raul Fernandez Automation & Robotics Research Institute Romano Patrick Universidad Panamericana ABSTRACT The development of the Standard Assembly Cell (SAC) stands as one of the significant recent efforts to bring cost-justified automation in the area of light and medium electromechanical assembly to the defense aerospace industry. Supported both by a body of academic and industrial research and by the availability of infrastructure hardware off-the-shelf, the SAC is a commercial reality already under adoption within missile manufacturing. Drawing on the experience developing a prototype SAC for the automated assembly of inertial navigation components, sponsored by DARPA’s Affordable Multi- Missile Manufacturing program, this paper presents a compilation of selected physical and conceptual strategies - best practices - aimed at facilitating the continued deployment of this technology.
Technical Paper

Applying Construction Automation Research to Extraterrestrial Building Projects

2000-07-10
2000-01-2465
In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of past construction automation research, including practical applications, and report on current efforts which attempt to increase efficiency, flexibility, autonomy, and architectural quality into the automated erection of habitable spaces. Current research includes genetic programming-enhanced design, the use of shape grammars for automatic layout of parametric spaces, the use of kit-of-parts concepts for quantified assembly, and concepts for efficient packing and shipping of building components and construction robots for automated deployment onsite. The paper concludes with a discussion of possibilities for applying terrestrial automated construction research and design concepts to building processes in hostile environments.
Technical Paper

Development of the Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility for the International Space Station

2000-07-10
2000-01-2473
A Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility (CPBF) has been development by the Wisconsin Center of Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The purpose of the CPBF is to support long-term commercial and scientific plant research in a microgravity environment on-board the International Space Station (ISS). CPBF provides an enclosed, environmentally controlled plant growth chamber with controlled parameters of temperature, humidity, light intensity, atmospheric composition, and fluid nutrient delivery.
Technical Paper

Performance of the ASTROCULTURE™ Plant Growth Unit (ASC-8) During the STS-95 Mission

2000-07-10
2000-01-2474
Conducting research to assess the impact of microgravity on plant growth and development requires a plant growth unit that has the capability to provide an enclosed, controlled environment chamber. Since plants are sensitive to a number of atmospheric gaseous materials, the chamber's atmosphere must be isolated from the space vehicle atmosphere. The plant growth unit must also be capable of removing any deleterious materials that may affect plant growth and development. The ASTROCULTURE™ plant growth unit (ASC-8), developed by Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconson, was used to provide the desired environmental conditions required to support plant growth experiment during 9-day STS-95 mission. Effective control of chamber temperature, chamber humidity, plant water and nutrients delivery, and chamber carbon dioxide was maintained during the entire mission.
Technical Paper

Space Plant Research on the ISS with the European Modular Cultivation System and with BIOLAB

2000-07-10
2000-01-2472
Two ESA facilities will be available for plant research and other biological experiments on the International Space Station: the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in the US “Destiny” Module and BIOLAB in the European “Columbus” Laboratory. Both facilities use standard experiment containers, mounted on centrifuges and connected to life support systems, allowing telescience-controlled acceleration studies (0.001×g up to 2.0×g) and continuation of microgravity research on protoplasts, callus cultures, algae, fungi and seedlings, as earlier flown on Biorack, and new experiments with larger specimens of fungi, mosses and vascular plants.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design Considerations on Biological Treatment Alternatives for a Simulated Mars Base Wastewater Treatment System

2000-07-10
2000-01-2467
The Mars Society has been preparing designs for a terrestrial-based analog human habitat to research technologies suitable for extended human duration on Mars. The Mars Society's Arctic Research Station, currently in the design phase, is planned for habitation in summer of 2001 on Devon Island in northern Canada. An important component of the station will be the waste treatment and resource recovery system. The four to six people inhabiting the station in the summer months will produce both gray water and domestic sewage that requires treatment. The arctic environment of the planned location of the station imposes design constraints similar to those on Mars, affecting size, cost, reliability, and other critical considerations of the waste treatment system design.
Technical Paper

Biological Wastewater Processor Experiment Definition

2000-07-10
2000-01-2468
The Biological Wastewater Processor Experiment Definition team is performing the preparatory ground research required to define and design a mature space flight experiment. One of the major outcomes from this work will be a unit-gravity prototype design of the infrastructure required to support scientific investigations related to microgravity wastewater bioprocessing. It is envisioned that this infrastructure will accommodate the testing of multiple bioprocessor design concepts in parallel as supplied by NASA, small business innovative research (SBIR), academia, and industry. In addition, a systematic design process to identify how and what to include in the space flight experiment was used.
Technical Paper

First Astronaut - Rover Interaction Field Test

2000-07-10
2000-01-2482
The first ever Astronaut - Rover (ASRO) Interaction Field Test was conducted successfully on February 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, California in a representative surface terrain. This test was a joint effort between the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California and the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas to investigate the interaction between humans and robotic rovers for potential future planetary surface exploration. As prototype advanced planetary surface space suit and rover technologies are being developed for human planetary surface exploration, it is desirable to better understand the interaction and potential benefits of an Extravehiclar Activity (EVA) crewmember interacting with a robotic rover. This interaction between an EVA astronaut and a robotic rover is seen as complementary and can greatly enhance the productivity and safety of surface excursions.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Low Hemispheric Emissivity at Low Temperatures - Designing a Cryogenic Test Bench

2000-07-10
2000-01-2526
This paper describes the theoretical principle for measuring total hemispheric emissivity by a conventional calorimetric method. A sample, whose emissivity is to be measured, is suspended within a vacuum chamber (pressure < 10−7 mbar). The heater-equipped sample radiates to a “cold” thermal environment. In equilibrium state, knowledge of the heater-dissipated electric power, of sample temperatures, and of the environment will yield the total hemispheric emissivity of the area. Optimizing the measurement's delicate transition from theoretical principle to practical implementation was made possible by fine analysis of the error budget related to this experiment, leading on to designing a total hemispheric emissivity bench capable of measurements over the 300 K-to-80 K ranges to within 0.04 and 0.03 accuracies at these respective temperatures.
Technical Paper

Operation of an Electronic Nose Aboard the Space Shuttle and Directions for Research for a Second Generation Device

2000-07-10
2000-01-2512
A flight experiment to test the operation of an Electronic Nose developed and built at JPL and Caltech was done aboard STS-95 in October-November, 1998. This ENose uses conductometric sensors made of insulating polymer-carbon composite films; it has a volume of 1.7 liters, weighs 1.4 kg including the operating computer and operates on 1.5 W average power. In the flight experiment, the ENose was operated continuously for 6 days and recorded the sensors' response to changes in air in the mid-deck of the orbiter. The ENose had been trained to identify and quantify ten common contaminants at the 24-hour Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) level. Most SMACs are on the order of 10-100 ppm. The experiment was controlled by collecting air samples daily and analyzing them using standard analytical techniques after the flight. The device is microgravity insensitive.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Space Suit Thermal Control

2000-07-10
2000-01-2391
Automatic thermal comfort control for the minimum consumables PLSS is undertaken using several control approaches. Accuracy and performance of the strategies using feedforward, feedback, and gain scheduling are evaluated through simulation, highlighting their advantages and limitations. Implementation issues, consumable usage, and the provision for the extension of these control strategies to the cryogenic PLSS are addressed.
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