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Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy and Transient Control in a Passenger Diesel Engine Using LP(Low Pressure)-EGR

Diesel engines are the most commonly used power train of the freight and public transportations in the world. From the viewpoint of global warming restraint, however, reduction of exhaust emissions from the diesel engine is urgent demand. Stringent emission regulations are being proposed with growing concern on NOx, PM and CO2 emissions. Future emission regulations require advanced emission control technologies, such as SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction), LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The EGR is a commonly used technique to reduce emission. In this study, a LP-EGR(Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system was investigated to evaluate its potential on emission reduction and fuel economy improvement, especially for a passenger diesel engine. A 3.0ℓ diesel engine equipped with the LP-EGR system was tested using an in-house control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Dual Loop EGR of a V6 3.0 Liter Diesel Engine for CO2 Reduction

As the markets require a more environmentally friendly and high fuel consumption vehicle, we have to satisfy bilateral target. Though many new after-treatment techniques like LNT, SCR are investigated to meet both strong emission regulations and low fuel consumption, high cost of these techniques should be solved to adopt widely. This paper describes how to optimize the dual loop EGR as a tool to reduce CO₂ emission of a HSDI diesel engine in the passenger car application. Focus is not only on the optimization to obtain the maximum CO₂ reduction but also on how to assess and overcome various side effects. As a result of careful optimization, as much as 6% CO₂ reduction was achieved by introduction of low pressure EGR loop, maintaining the same boundary conditions as those with high pressure EGR loop only.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Flow Analysis of Exhaust Manifolds for PZEV

As the current and future emission regulations become stringent, the research on exhaust manifold with CCC (Close Coupled Catalyst) has been the interesting and remarkable subject. To design of exhaust manifold with CCC is a difficult task due to the complexity of the flow distribution caused by the pulsating flows that are emitted at the exhaust ports. This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental approach to improve catalyst flow uniformity through the basic understanding of exhaust flow characteristics. Computational and experimental approach to the flow for exhaust manifold of conventional cast type, stainless steel bending type with 900 cell CCC system in a 4-cylinder gasoline engine was performed to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger

High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Study of Flow Characteristics in Exhaust Manifold and CCC (Close-Coupled Catalyst)

A combined experimental and computational study of 3-D unsteady compressible flow in exhaust manifold and CCC system was performed to understand the flow characteristics and to improve the flow distribution of pulsating exhaust gases within monolith. An experimental study was carried out to measure the velocity distribution in production exhaust manifold and CCC under engine operating conditions using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) system. Velocity characteristics were measured at planes 25 mm away from the front surface of first monolith and between two monolithic bricks. To provide boundary conditions for the computational study, velocity fields according to crank angle were also measured at the entrance of exhaust manifold. The comparisons of exhaust gas flow patterns in the junction and mixing pipe between experimental and computational results were made.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flow Characteristics Inside the Two Types of Exhaust Manifold and CCC Systems

A study of unsteady compressible flow for two types of exhaust manifold and CCC (Close-Coupled Catalyst) systems attached to a 4-cylinder DOHC gasoline engine was carried out to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases and finally to make the conversion efficiency of catalyst better. An experimental study was conducted, using LDV technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside exhaust manifolds and CCC under practical engine conditions. In this study, through experiment and calculation, the effects of geometric configuration of exhaust manifold on flow maldistribution in monolith were mainly investigated to understand the exhaust flow structure in terms of flow uniformity and to improve the conversion efficiency. As a result of this fundamental study, the modified exhaust manifold (Type B) was designed and manufactured. Full load performance tests and vehicle emission tests were performed to see the effects of flow characteristics on engine performance and emission.
Technical Paper

Development of Single Coated Pd/Rh Three Way Catalyst for CCC Application

We developed new single coated Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWC). Several Pd/Rh single layered catalysts were prepared by changing the precious metal (PM) fixation method and adding new base metal oxides (BMO). These samples were compared with double-coated catalyst by using model gas activity test, BET test, XRD test and vehicle emission test. It is found that the performance of the single coated catalyst is as good as that of commercialized double-coated catalyst. The oxygen storage capacity of the single coated catalyst is better than that of double-coated catalyst. Moreover, manufacturing the single coated catalyst enables us to eliminate the unnecessary coating process which is essential to the conventional one. Our test results demonstrate that the developed catalyst has sufficient activity and durability of OSC to meet emission and OBD-II regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Gasoline Engine with Thermal Efficiency over 42%

The maximum thermal efficiency of gasoline engine has been improving and recently the maximum of 40% has been achieved. In this study, the potential of further improvement on engine thermal efficiency over 40% was investigated. The effects of engine parameters on the engine thermal efficiency were evaluated while the optimization of parameters was implemented. Parameters tested in this study were compression ratio, tumble ratio, twin spark configuration, EGR rate, In/Ex cam shaft duration and component friction. Effects of each parameter on fuel consumption reduction were discussed with experimental results. For the engine optimization, compression ratio was found to be 14, at which the best BSFC without knock and combustion phasing retardation near sweet spot area was showed. Highly diluted combustion was applied with high EGR rate up to 35% for the knock mitigation.
Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Smart Engine Control Strategy for the Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Understanding the Unique Behavior of TWC

The worldwide fuel economy compliance level has been tightening, at the same time, LEV-III/Euro-6d/China-6/BS-6 regulations for NMOG and NOx emissions are being introduced or already effective. Therefore, intensive research effort has been conducted in order to improve the fuel efficiency of passenger cars and reduce exhaust emission. In response to these demands, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine is being introduced for gasoline vehicles in consideration of fuel efficiency improvement, high output and driving performance compared to naturally aspirated (NA) engine. However, due to its larger thermal mass from the turbo hardware in the exhaust, it suffers from the cold-start emission. The main hazardous gases emitted from gasoline vehicles are CO, HC and NOx, and a three-way catalyst (TWC) is installed for the purification of these harmful emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Surfactant-Free Anti-Fogging Coating for Automotive Headlamps

Recently, the design of automotive headlamps has become diversified and complicated according to customer needs. Hence, structural complexity of the headlamps has also increased. Complex structure of the headlamps inevitably causes a disturbance in air circulation. For this reason, inadvertent micro-sized water droplets, called fogging, are condensed on the inner surface of headlamp lens due to temperature difference between the inner and outer lens surfaces. To circumvent fogging inside of the headlamp lens, an anti-fogging coating is indispensable. Conventionally, diverse surfactants have been adopted as substantial material for the anti-fogging coating. However, the usage of the surfactants causes undesirable side effect such as water mark arising from vapor condensation, which is an important issue that must be fully resolved. In this study, we developed an innovative anti-fogging coating material without using conventional surfactant.
Technical Paper

The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Functioning Lean NOx Trap Catalysts for the On-board NH3 Generation

Improved Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts with enhanced NH3 generation feature were developed for the small diesel engine. The next generation LNT system needs to perform good NOx conversions over the wide temperature range including below 200°C for urban driving and above 400°C for motorway of real road driving. However, the extended use of BaO, a component of LNT known to be very effective for high temperature NOx storage, results in the decrease of low temperature NOx conversion due to the degradation of NO oxidation associating with sulfur over time. The improvement of the low-temperature LNT performance is a key requirement for the real driving emission control as the best operation temperature for urea-SCR is above ~250°C. In this study, our next generation LNT with new washcoat architecture has demonstrated improved NOx removal efficiencies under the wider operation temperature window than the current production technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra-Stable Cu-SCR Aftertreatment System for Advanced Lean NOx Control

The integration of SCR catalyst into diesel-particulate filter (SDPF) may be one of most viable ways to meet upcoming stringent emission regulations with new test protocols such as Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC) and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. The chabazite-structured SSZ-13-based catalysts enabled the wide implementation of urea-SCR technology for mobile applications due to their robust thermal stability up to 750°C compared to the thermally unstable ZSM-5-based technologies. However, the thermally stable Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst starts losing its initial activity with the increase of aging time at 850°C, where the SCR catalyst on SDPF can possibly be exposed during filter regeneration under a drop-to-idle (DTI) condition. Therefore, more durable SCR catalysts that survive under higher temperatures have been strongly desired in automotive industry. Recently, we found Cu-exchanged high silica LTA revealed an excellent hydrothermal stability.