Development of Dynamics Models for Assessing Spinal Dynamics and Injury from Repeated Impact in High Speed Planing Boats
High speed craft are used by civilian agencies and the military for rescue, for interdiction, and for rapid insertion and extraction of forces. Ensign et al. (2000) found evidence of a significant injury problem in a study of self-reported injuries of boat operators of high speed craft. Though repeated vertical spinal impacts with greater than 10 g peak accelerations may occur in such craft, there is currently no completely suitable injury criterion to predict the likelihood of spinal injuries from high speed craft operations. A new low-order dynamics metamodel for predicting vertical impact to the human spine has been developed using a Madymo (TNO, Inc) simulation of a seated occupant under predominantly vertical impact. This model has been validated using experimental high speed craft operations for impacts with vertical accelerations greater than 10 g.