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Journal Article

Combustion and Emissions with Bio-alcohol and Nonesterified Vegetable Oil Blend Fuels in a Small Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0017
Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels.
Technical Paper

Identification of Factors Influencing Premixed Diesel Engine Noise and Mechanism of Noise Reduction by EGR and Supercharging

2013-04-08
2013-01-0313
To determine the engine noise reduction methods, an engine noise research was conducted experimentally with a PCCI diesel engine. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged, single-cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave form and the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise. It is well known that the maximum pressure rise rate is the main parameter related to the engine noise. The PCCI engine was operated at a 1.0 MPa/°CA maximum pressure rise rate to eliminate the effects of the maximum pressure rise rate, and parameters which had the dominant effect on engine noise and combustion noise were determined.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0899
Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Analysis of Premixed Diesel Engine by Engine Tests and Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1293
When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Low Distillation Temperature Fuels

2013-10-14
2013-01-2624
The influence of fuel volatility on the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with three ordinary diesel fuels with different distillation temperature distributions and also with a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 20 (PRF20) as a high volatility fuel. The experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine for the premixed diesel combustion with a single injection at 11% intake oxygen concentration and conventional diesel combustion with a pilot fuel injection at 21% intake oxygen concentration. With the premixed diesel combustion, the indicated thermal efficiencies with the ordinary diesel fuels were lower than with PRF20 although the shapes of the rate of heat release and the combustion efficiencies calculated from the exhaust gas components were almost unchanged. With the conventional diesel combustion, the indicated thermal efficiencies with the ordinary diesel fuels and PRF20 were similar.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0866
Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Trade-off between Soot and Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel-Like Combustion by Chemical Kinetic Calculation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1847
This study makes use of the detailed mechanisms of n-heptane combustion, from gas reactions to soot particle formation and oxidation, and a two-stage model based on the CHEMKIN reactor network is developed and used to investigate the trade-off between soot and NOx emissions. The effects of the equivalence ratio, EGR, ambient pressure and temperature, and initial particle diameter are observed for various residence times. The results show that high rates of NOx formation are unavoidable under conditions where high reduction rates of soot particles are obtained. This suggests that suppression of the amount of soot during the formation stage is essential for simultaneous reductions in engine-out soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Aqueous Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with High Rates of EGR and Split Fuel Injections

2011-08-30
2011-01-1820
Silent, clean, and efficient combustion was realized with emulsified blends of aqueous ethanol and diesel fuel in a DI diesel with pilot injection and cooled EGR. The pilot injection sufficiently suppressed the rapid combustion to acceptable levels. The thermal efficiency with the emulsified fuel improved as the heat release with the pilot injection was retarded to near top dead center, due to poor ignitability and also due to a reduction in afterburning. With the emulsified fuel containing 40 vol% ethanol and 10 vol% water (E40W10), the smokeless operation range can be considerably extended even under low fuel injection pressure or low intake oxygen content conditions.
Journal Article

Improvement in DME-HCCI Combustion with Ethanol as a Low-Temperature Oxidation Inhibitor

2011-08-30
2011-01-1791
Port injection of ethanol addition as an ignition inhibitor was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in DME fueled HCCI combustion. The ethanol reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of the high-temperature reaction with ultra-low NOx over a wide operating range. Along with the ethanol addition, changes in intake temperature, overall equivalence ratio, and engine speed are investigated and shown to be effective in HCCI combustion control and to enable an extension of operation range. A chemical reaction analysis was performed to elucidate details of the ignition inhibition on low-temperature oxidation of DME-HCCI combustion.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Properties on Operational Range and Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Combustion

2013-10-15
2013-32-9054
The influence of fuel properties on the operational range and the thermal efficiency of premixed diesel combustion was evaluated with an ordinary diesel fuel, a primary reference fuel for cetane numbers, three primary reference fuels for octane numbers, and two normal heptane-toluene blend fuels in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel injection timing was set at 25°CA BTDC and the maximum rate of pressure rise was maintained below 1.0 MPa/°CA when lowering the intake oxygen concentration by cooled EGR. With increasing octane numbers, the higher intake oxygen concentration can be used, resulting in higher indicated thermal efficiency due to a higher combustion efficiency. The best thermal efficiency at the optimum intake oxygen concentration with the ordinary diesel fuel is lower than with the primary reference fuels with the similar ignitability but higher volatility.
Journal Article

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

2013-10-15
2013-32-9022
Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Pilot Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines with Low Ignitability Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0853
Characteristics of diesel combustion with low cetane number fuels with similar distillation temperatures to ordinary diesel fuel, including fuels with cetane number 32 and 39 (LC32, LC39), and a blend of n-cetane (n-hexadecane) and iso-cetane (2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8-heptamethylnonane) with cetane number 32 (CN32), were investigated. The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and pilot injection on characteristics of combustion and exhaust gas emissions with these fuels were examined in a naturally aspirated, single cylinder, diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system. Even with the low cetane number fuels, quiet combustion with low levels of exhaust gas emissions comparable to ordinary diesel fuel was established by suitable control of intake oxygen levels and pilot injections.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

2012-09-10
2012-01-1577
The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Diesel Combustion with Premixed Ethanol as the Main Fuel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2687
Dual fuel combustion with premixed ethanol as the main fuel and direct injection of diesel fuel as an ignition source poses problems including large unburned emissions and excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, injection timings of diesel fuel, and intake oxygen concentrations was systematically investigated in a modern diesel engine. The combustion process was classified into three stages: the first rapid combustion of diesel fuel and the ethanol mixture entrained into the diesel fuel spray; the second mild combustion with flame propagation of the ethanol mixture; and the third rapid combustion with auto-ignition of the unburned ethanol mixture without knocking. The third stage combustion occurs occasionally at several operating conditions and has been termed as PREMIER (premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region) combustion.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0863
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Journal Article

Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbons and Auto-Ignition Characteristics of HCCI Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0003
The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

2014-11-11
2014-32-0127
Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heat Release Shape and the Connecting Rod Crank Radius Ratio for Low Engine Noise and High Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Engine Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0825
Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Properties

2006-10-16
2006-01-3387
The dependence of ultra-high EGR low temperature diesel combustion on fuel properties including cetane number and distillation temperature was investigated with a single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, 1.0 L, common rail DI diesel engine. Decreasing cetane number in fuels significantly reduces smoke emission due to an extension in ignition delay and the subsequent improvement in mixture formation. Smokeless combustion, ultra-low NOx, and efficient operating range with regard to EGR and IMEP are significantly extended by decreasing fuel cetane number. Changes in fuel distillation temperature do not result in significant differences in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for ultra-high EGR operation, and smokeless operation is established even with higher distillation temperature fuels as long as fuel cetane number is sufficiently low.
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