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Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder CO2 Measurements of Residual Gas in a GDI Engine for Model Validation and HCCI Combustion Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1654
An accurate prediction of residual burned gas within the combustion chamber is important to quantify for development of modern engines, especially so for those with internally recycled burned gases and HCCI operations. A wall-guided GDI engine has been fitted with an in-cylinder sampling probe attached to a fast response NDIR analyser to measure in-situ the cycle-by-cycle trapped residual gas. The results have been compared with a model which predicts the trapped residual gas fraction based on heat release rate calculated from the cylinder pressure data and other factors. The inlet and exhaust valve timings were varied to produce a range of Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) conditions and the results were compared between the actual measured CO2 values and those predicted by the model, which shows that the RGF value derived from the exhaust gas temperature and pressure measurement at EVC is consistently overestimated by 5% over those based on the CO2 concentrations.
Technical Paper

Wall Temperature Effect on SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Progress in a Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1662
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to investigate the effect of the thermal boundary condition on the hybrid combustion, the experiments with different coolant temperatures are performed to adjust the chamber wall temperature in a gasoline engine. The experimental results indicate that increasing wall temperature would advance the combustion phasing, enlarge the peak heat release rate and shorten the combustion duration. While the capacity of the wall temperature effect on the hybrid combustion characteristics are more notable in the auto-ignition dominated hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gaseous and PM Emissions of 4-Stroke CAI/HCCI and SI Combustion in a DI Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1549
Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1393
In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Homogeneity and Repeatability on Particulates Using the PLIF Technique in an Optical DISI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1207
The work was concerned with visualisation of the charge homogeneity and cyclic variations within the planar fuel field near the spark plug in an optical spark ignition engine fitted with an outwardly opening central direct fuel injector. Specifically, the project examined the effects of fuel type and injection settings, with the overall view to understanding some of the key mechanisms previously identified as leading to particulate formation in such engines. The three fuels studied included a baseline iso-octane, which was directly compared to two gasoline fuels containing 10% and 85% volume of ethanol respectively. The engine was a bespoke single cylinder with Bowditch style optical access through a flat piston crown. Charge stratification was studied over a wide spectrum of injection timings using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, with additional variation in charge temperature due to injection also estimated when viable using a two-line PLIF approach.
Journal Article

Effect of Valve Timing and Residual Gas Dilution on Flame Development Characteristics in a Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1205
The goal of this research was to study and quantify the effect of exhaust valve timing and residual gas dilution on in-cylinder flow patterns, flame propagation and heat release characteristics in a spark ignition engine. Experiments were carried out in a recently developed single cylinder optical engine. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to measuring and evaluating the in-cylinder flow field. Detailed analysis of flame images combined with heat release data was presented for several engine operating conditions, giving insight into the combustion process in terms of visible flame area and flame expansion speed. Results from PIV measurement indicates that the limited alteration of the in-cylinder bulk flow could be observed with the variation of exhaust valve timing. The in-cylinder fluctuating kinetic energies and their Coefficient of Variations (COVs) decrease with the advance of the exhaust valve timing.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

CFD Study on Effects of Thermal and Residual Gas Inhomogeneous Distribution on Auto-ignition of Gasoline HCCI Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0160
For a HCCI gasoline combustion engine controlled by burnt residual gas, management of the residual gas and thermal distribution in cylinder is a possible way to optimize the auto-ignition and combustion phasing. The management ability of intake valve on the distribution and its effects on auto-ignition are investigated via KIVA code. The thermal and composition inhomogeneous distribution is quantified as inhomogeneity. The results show that, the thermal inhomogeneous distribution correlates well with that of the residual gas. As the residual gas fraction increases, the residual gas fraction inhomogeneity and the temperature inhomogeneity tend to increase. The residual gas fraction, as well as the in-cylinder residual gas inhomogeneity and temperature inhomogeneity, increases greatly with earlier exhaust valve close timing. When the residual gas fraction is larger than 40%, late intake valve open timing leads to high in-cylinder inhomogeneity.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Experiment and Analysis of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with 2-stroke and 4-stroke Cycles of Spark Ignition and Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1774
Over recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many of them have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of different comparison between various operating strategies. In this work, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valvetrain system has been commissioned and used to achieve seven different operation modes, which are 4-stroke throttle-controlled SI, 4-stroke intake valve throttled SI, 4-stroke positive valve overlap SI, 4-stroke negative valve overlap CAI, 4-stroke exhaust rebreathing CAI, 2-stroke CAI and 2-stroke SI. Their performance and emission characteristics are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Effects of Injection Timing on CAI Operation in a 2/4-Stroke Switchable GDI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1773
A single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and commissioned on a transient engine test bed in order to study different engine cycles and combustion modes with identical hardware and operating conditions. The engine can be operated in either 4-stroke cycle or 2-stroke cycle by means of an electro-hydraulic camless system. In addition, both spark ignition and controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion can be achieved. In this paper, effects of the injection timing on different CAI combustion modes are investigated, including the residual gas trapping and exhaust gas rebreathing CAI operations in 4-stroke mode, and also 2-stroke CAI operation, with a stoichiometric air fuel ratio and homogeneous charge used throughout. The performance and emission data are presented and analysed as a function of the injection timing. Results show that the charge cooling effect on the intake flow rate is dependent upon the in-cylinder temperature at the time of injection.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Species in Residual Gas on Auto-Ignition in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1115
Chemical reaction kinetics plays an important role in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. In order to control the combustion process, the underlying mechanism of auto-ignition must be explored, especially for the HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy, in which the residual gas affects the auto-ignition of next cycle remarkably. In this research, experimental research was carried out in a single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with an in-cylinder sampling system which mainly consists of a special spark plug, a sampling tube and a high-speed electromagnetic valve. In-cylinder charge was sampled at compression stroke and analyzed by FTIR with two types of fuel injection strategy, such as port fuel injection (PFI) solely and port fuel injection combined with injection during negative valve overlap (PFI & NVO-Injection).
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1121
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1126
The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flame Propagation on the Auto-Ignition Timing in SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion (SCHC)

2014-10-13
2014-01-2672
SCHC (SI-CAI hybrid combustion), also known as spark-assisted HCCI, has been proved to be an effective method to stabilize combustion and extend the operation range of high efficiency, low temperature combustion. The combustion is initiated by the spark discharge followed by a propagation of flame front until the auto-ignition of end-gas. Spark ignition and the spark timing can be used to control the combustion event. The goal of this research is to study the effect of flame propagation on the auto-ignition timing in SCHC by means of chemiluminescence imaging and heat release analysis based on an optical engine. With higher EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, more fuel is consumed by the flame propagation and stronger correlation between the flame propagation and auto-ignition is observed.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Shapes and Fuel Injection Strategies on In-Cylinder Conditions in a PFI/GDI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2670
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine.
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