Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Blend in a Medium Capacity C.I. Engine Employing EGR

2013-04-08
2013-01-1040
Ever increasing consumption of fossil fuel and large scale deterioration of environment are mandating employment of renewable fuels. Researchers all over the world are experimenting on variety of alternative fuels for meeting future energy demands. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative fuels due to lower CO, HC and PM emissions. However, NOx emissions are increased in case of biodiesel in CI engine. The present study focuses on evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of a medium capacity diesel engine on blends of fish oil biodiesel and diesel blends employing EGR. Fish oil was transesterified with methyl alcohol to produce methyl ester. B20 blend of biodiesel was used since it balances the property differences with conventional diesel, e.g., performance, emission benefits and cost. Further, B20 blend can be used in automotive engines with no major modification. NOx formation takes place when combustion temperature is more than 2000K.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Studies of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Diesel and Mahua Oil Methyl Ester

2013-04-08
2013-01-1041
Ever increasing consumption of petroleum derived fuels has been a matter of grave concern due to rapidly depleting global reserves and alarming levels of emissions leading to global warming and climate change. Exhaustive research has been carried out globally to evaluate the suitability of variety of renewable fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Amongst them, vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesel seem to be a promising alternative for diesel in vital sectors such as transportation, industrial and rural agriculture. For quite some time, the focus for production of biodiesel has shifted towards non-edible oil feedstock from the edible ones, mostly due to food security issues. One such non-edible oil, locally known as Mahua in Indian subcontinent, is a very promising feed stock for biodiesel production. In the present investigation, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (v/v %) blends of mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel were prepared.
Technical Paper

Studying Synthesis of Thermally and Chemically Modified Plant Oil and their Tribological Evaluation for Use as a Base Stock for Environmentally Friendly Bio-Lubricant

2014-04-01
2014-01-1477
The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant.
Technical Paper

Effect of Blending of Ethanol in Kusum Oil on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1396
In the present study, ethanol was added in lower proportions to non-edible vegetable oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”, to evaluate various performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder; diesel engine. For engine's trial, four samples were prepared with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ethanol in kusum oil (v/v) and the blends were named as E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 respectively. Neat Kusum oil was named as K100. The results indicated that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was found to increase with increase in volume fraction of ethanol in the kusum oil. E5K95, E10K90, E15K85 and E20K80 test fuels exhibited maximum BTE of 25.4%, 26.4%, 27.4% and 27.7% respectively as compared to 23.6% exhibited by the neat Kusum oil. Similarly, full load brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased from 16.3MJ/kWh in case of neat Kusum oil to 15.1MJ/kWh for E20K80 with an almost linear reduction pattern with increased ethanol composition in the test fuel.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emission Characteristics of Blend of Algae Oil Methyl Ester with Diesel in a Medium Capacity Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1378
Primary energy sources can be divided into non-renewable and renewable. The over-exploration of non-renewable sources for energy availability imposes considerable impacts on the environment. Reducing the use of fossil fuels would significantly reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and other pollutants produced. The future drift for sustainable production of renewable energy is cautiously thoughtful for it has been increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, majorly produced from food crops that are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-edible feedstock such as microalgae, which potentially offers greatest opportunities in the longer term. Microalgae are considered a very promising feedstock for biodiesel production due to their very high yield and their no competition with food crops.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Blends of Jatropha Oil and N-Butanol in a Naturally Aspirated Compression Ignition Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2684
Diesel Engines are widely used in transportation, industrial and agriculture sectors worldwide due to their versatility and ruggedness. However, they also emit harmful emissions detrimental to human health and environment. Apart from environmental degradation, the perturbation in international crude oil prices is also mandating use of renewable fuels. In this context, vegetable oils such as Jatropha Curcas due to their carbon neutral nature and widespread availability, seems to present a promising alternative to the mineral diesel. Straight vegetable oils (SVO) are not recommended for direct diesel engine application due to their higher viscosity, poor volatility etc. and dilution of straight vegetable oil may effectively enable its direct application in unmodified diesel engines. In the present study, Jatropha oil was diluted with n-Butanol to improve the fuel properties of the blend.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel in a Compression Ignition Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2666
The commercial sources of energy such as fossil fuels and petroleum products are extensively used. These sources are finite and cause large scale degradation of environment. The increased pollution in urban areas is already causing serious sociological, ecological and economic implications. Diesel engines produce high torque at low rpm as compared to spark ignition engines due to which they are used in industrial, agricultural and transportation sector. Diesel fuel has higher HC, CO and PM emissions in comparison to biodiesel. This has drawn the attention of world towards the usage of biodiesel as an alternative fuel. Biodiesel has an advantage over diesel fuel because of its biodegradable and less toxic nature and superior lubrication properties. However, NOx emissions are compounded in case of biodiesel in CI engine. There has been concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Oil Blend with Ethanol

2013-09-08
2013-24-0105
Dwindling petroleum reserves and alarming level of air pollution has been an issue of great concern in recent times and researchers across the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Within the gamut of alternative fuels, biofuels are the most promising and have the potential to mitigate climate change and lease a new life to existing IC engines. The vegetable oils are having immense potential in this context and have been used either in neat or modified form by large number of researchers. Jatropha curcus is a perennial plant and bears non edible oil. The plant is drought tolerant and has been cultivated all over the arid and semi-arid areas for reforestation. In the present study, blends of jatropha oil and ethanol have been prepared in 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v) and evaluation of important properties of blends has been carried. The results show that properties are quite similar to diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Scope of Fe-ZSM5 Zeolite Based Urea-SCR with Fish Oil Bio-Diesel Fuel in Compressed Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1541
The present consumption rates and heavy dependence on fossil fuels pose a humongous threat to the environment. The increased pollution in urban areas is already causing serious sociological, ecological and economic implications. The issue of energy security led governments and researchers to look for alternate means of renewable and environment friendly fuels. Biodiesel has been one of the promising, and economically viable alternatives. The biodiesels are reported to cause reduction in CO, HC and PM emissions. However, NOx emissions are increased in case of biodiesel in CI engine. Therefore, a Urea-SCR over Fe-ZSM5 honeycomb substrate (400cpsi) zeolite catalyst after treatment system is an effective technology to reduce emissions for biodiesel applications. Exhaust gases pass through the catalyst and reactions take place along its surface, consequently converting NOx into nitrogen and H2O.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel and Diesel Fuel in a Medium Capacity Compression Ignition Employing Urea-SCR with Cu-ZSM5

2014-04-01
2014-01-1499
The present world scenario faces a serious threat from increasing dependence on fossil fuels. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel may be considered as a good substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. In terms of emissions from biodiesel, the cause of concern continues to be the NOx emissions. Therefore, to compliment the functioning of biodiesels, Urea-SCR over Cu-ZSM5 catalyst is an effective option due to its ability to convert NOx into nitrogen and water. There has been increasing concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. The recent paper focuses on use of two non-edible oils mahua oil and fish oil (processed from waste produced by fish).
Technical Paper

Scope of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking in the Production of Electricity in Automobiles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2543
It is of common knowledge that tapping all the feasible sources of energy and systems which prevent losses is the need of the hour. Currently, many such systems have been developed including “REGENERATIVE BRAKING”. The usual method for regenerative braking includes using a dynamo attached to the crankshaft which gets charged when the wheel rotates during idling. However, this study aims at doing this differently by attaching the regenerative system at the wheels. Considering an example of wastage of energy, a 1000 kg car brakes from 36km/h (10m/s) to 18km/h (5m/s) about 150 times in a liter consumption of diesel. We can safely calculate wastage of 5625 KJ of kinetic energy. This paper aims to explore this immense potential source of energy recovery by producing & storing electricity using magnetic braking on wheels of automobiles.
Journal Article

Comparative Tribological Investigation of Mahua Oil and its Chemically Modified Derivatives

2014-04-01
2014-01-0956
For the last decade, the lubricant industry has been trying to formulate biodegradable lubricants with technical characteristics superior to those based on petroleum. A renewable resource, mahua oil, is good alternative to mineral oil because of its environmentally friendly, non toxic and readily biodegradable nature. The triacylglycerol structure of mahua oil is amphiphilic in character that makes it an excellent candidate as lubricant and functional fluid. It is also very attractive for industrial applications that have potential for environmental contact through accidental leakage, dripping or generates large quantities of after-use waste materials requiring costly disposal. Vegetable oil in its natural form has limited use as industrial fluids due to poor thermo-oxidation stability, low temperature behavior and other tribochemical degrading processes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Performance and Emission Characteristic of Karanja Biodiesel and Diesel Blend in a Medium Capacity C.I. Engine Employing EGR

2011-08-30
2011-01-1936
Depleting fossil energy reserves and large scale debasement of the environment has been grabbing headlines for some time now. Biodiesel has been proven by researchers to produce less CO, HC and PM, albeit higher NOx as compared to diesel. The present study was carried out with blends of Karanja - a type of Leguminosae plant abundant in India - that produces non-edible seed oil analogous to Jatropha. An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was employed to encumber the higher NOx emissions produced with biodiesel. Performance and emission characteristics of Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) with EGR rates of 0, 5, 10, 15 & 20% were compared with baseline data of diesel. The results show that adaptation of EGR with KB20 reduces NOx emissions without any penalty on smoke opacity or BSEC.
Technical Paper

Development of Antilock Braking System (ABS) Controller Using Model Based Development (MBD) from Concept to Vehicle Trials

2013-01-09
2013-26-0084
The electronic content in an automobile is ever increasing for last several years due to emissions, safety and performance requirements. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller needs to be compressed to introduce new vehicle models in the market ahead of time. Antilock Braking System (ABS) ECU is one such example which has become a standard feature for most of the vehicles due to safety considerations. A project was undertaken to develop ABS ECU strategy from concept to vehicle trials with Model Based Development (MBD) technique. A methodology is established for scalable, fault tolerant, proven, and quick to implement ECU strategy development. This paper presents the development cycle followed for a unique ABS controller.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Isobutanol-Diesel Blend in Water Cooled CI Engine Employing EGR with EGR Intercooler

2013-09-08
2013-24-0151
The increasing rate of fossil fuel depletion and large scale debasement of the environment has been a serious concern across the globe. This twin problem of energy crises has caused researchers to look for a variety of solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. In this current scenario the issue of fuel availability has increased the use alternative fuels, especially alcohol derived fuels. Alcohol-diesel blends can be been seen as a prominent fuel for CI engine in the near future. Previous research on the use of alcohol as an alternative fuel in CI engines is restricted to short branch alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol. Despite their comparable combustion properties longer chain alcohols, such as butanol, isobutanol and pentanol have been barely investigated. In the present study performance and emission characteristics of an isobutanol-diesel blend was studied. One of the major problems encountered by isobutanol in CI engines is its low cetane rating.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orange Peel Oil Methyl Ester on Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0171
The rising cost and exponential depletion of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity for the researchers to evaluate the utilization and suitability of various renewable fuels. Amongst variety of alternative fuels, biofuels have the potential to mitigate the vulnerability and the adverse effects of use of fossil fuels. Vegetable/plant oil is better proposition as alternative fuel for diesel engine having much advantage over other alternative fuels. Orange oil from its peel has a huge potential and can be used as an alternate fuel at the most economical purchase rate. In the present investigation experiments were carried out to evaluate performance and emission characteristics of Orange peel oil methyl ester blends (OPOME) (10%, and 20% by volume) on unmodified diesel engine. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and European standards.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Use of Jatropha Oil Ethyl Easter and Diesel Blends in Small Capacity Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0172
Biodiesel in has gained great momentum in last few years and has been a subject of vast research all around the globe. Bulk of the research work carried out so far has been confined to production of methyl esters of vegetable oil that is known as biodiesel in the transesterification process. In the present study, jatropha oil ethyl ester (JOEE) was prepared using transesterification process with ethanol and KOH as a catalyst. The evaluation of important physico-chemical properties was carried and the properties were found within acceptable limits of ASTM/EN standards. A small capacity diesel engine was fuelled with different blends of JOEE and diesel and various performances, emission and combustion characteristics were evaluated. The results suggested that brake thermal efficiency was increased and emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke opacity were found lower for JOEE blend confirming better combustion due to the oxygenated fuel and higher cetane rating.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Studies of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Isopropyl Alcohol and Diesel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1132
Phenomenal industrial activities worldwide in the last couple of centuries have resulted in indiscriminate use of conventional energy resources and environmental degradation. The consumption of petroleum-derived fuels has increased exponentially due to enhanced mobility and also caused serious threat to earth's eco-system. The need to explore variety of alternative fuels in transportation sector has been the subject of research all over the world. In this context, alcohols like butanol and isopropyl alcohol seem to present a viable option for potential application in diesel engines. In the present investigation, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% (v/v) blends of isopropyl alcohol and diesel was prepared. The various blends were found to be homogenous and stable. The exhaustive engine trials were carried out on a single-cylinder unmodified diesel engine. The results suggest significant reduction in emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx for various blends as compared to baseline data of diesel.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of CNG in Stationary HCCI Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2508
Internal combustion engines are extensively used in every field of life in today's world. Diesel engines being more efficient are preferred in the industrial and transportation sector in comparison to spark ignition engines for their higher efficiency, versatility and ruggedness. The major emissions of diesel engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO). Among these emissions, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the particulate matter are the reasons of serious concern. For reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter simultaneously, the use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) have provided a sustainable solution in the present scenario. Further, the use of CNG in HCCI engine along with pilot diesel injection; the emissions have been decreased drastically. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

2013-09-17
2013-01-2170
Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
X