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Journal Article

Understanding Knock Metric for Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1658
The knock metric for controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines is assessed by considering the physical processes that establish the pressure wave that contributes to the acoustic radiation of the engine, and by analyzing pressure data from a CAI engine. Data sets from the engine operating with port fuel injection, early direct injection and late direct injection are used to monitor the effect of mixture composition stratification. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the local pressure rise produced by heat release has to be discounted by the work spent in acoustic expansion against the ambient pressure to properly predict the pressure wave amplitude. Based on this analysis, a modified correlation between the pressure wave amplitude and the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) is developed by introducing an MPRR offset to account for the expansion work.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Loss Mechanisms Associated with Engine Downsizing, Boosting and Compression Ratio Change

2013-04-08
2013-01-0929
The loss mechanisms associated with engine downsizing, boosting and compression ratio change are assessed. Of interest are the extents of friction loss, pumping loss, and crevice loss. The latter does not scale proportionally with engine size. These losses are deconstructed via a cycle simulation model which encompasses a friction model and a crevice loss model for engine displacement of 300 to 500 cc per cylinder. Boost pressure is adjusted to yield constant torque. The compression ratio is varied from 8 to 20. Under part load, moderate speed condition (1600 rpm; 13.4 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work reduces significantly with downsizing while the work loss associated with the crevice volume increases. At full load (1600 rpm; 43.6 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work is less significant. The crevice loss (normalized to the fuel energy) is essentially the same as in the part load case. The sensitivities of the respective loss terms to downsizing are reported.
Technical Paper

The Nature of Heat Release in Gasoline PPCI Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1295
The heat release characteristics in terms of the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and combustion phasing in a partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engine are studied using a calibration gasoline. Early port fuel injection provides a nearly homogeneous charge, into which a secondary fuel pulse is added via direct injection (DI) to provide stratification which is affected by the timing of the start of injection (SOI). As the SOI the DI fuel is retarded from early compression, MPRR first decreases, then increases substantially, and decreases again. The MPRR correlates mostly with the combustion phasing. The SOI timing plays an indirect role. The observation is explained by a bulk heat release process of which the rate increases with temperature rather than by a sequential ignition process. Observations from compression ignition of representative homogeneous charges in a Rapid Compression Machine support this explanation.
Journal Article

On the High Load Limit of Boosted Gasoline HCCI Engine Operating in NVO Mode

2010-04-12
2010-01-0162
The high load limit of a boosted homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engine operating on negative-valve-overlap (NVO) was assessed. When operating under stoichiometric condition with no external dilution, the load, as measured by the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), increased with increase in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), and with decrease in trapped amount of residual gas. The maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), however, also increased correspondingly. When the MAP and the amount of residual gas were adjusted so that the engine operating point could be held at a constant MPRR value, the NIMEP increased with the simultaneous decrease in MAP and residual until the misfire limit was reached. Therefore if a MPRR ceiling is imposed, the high load limit of an HCCI engine is at the intersection of the constraining MPRR line and the misfire line.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0350
The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the nitrogen in the intake air by argon or CO₂, thereby increasing or decreasing the laminar flame speed. The objective is to examine the "Late Robust Combustion" concept: whether there are opportunities for producing a high exhaust temperature using retarded combustion to facilitate catalyst warm-up, while at the same time, keeping an acceptable cycle-to-cycle torque variation as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV) of the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP). The operating condition of interest is at the fast idle period of a cold start with engine speed at 1400 RPM and NIMEP at 2.6 bar. A fast burn could be produced by appropriate charge motion. The combustion phasing is primarily a function of the spark timing.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1763
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Journal Article

EGR Effects on Boosted SI Engine Operation and Knock Integral Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0707
The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a boosted direct-injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine operating at stoichiometric equivalence ratio, gross indicated mean effective pressure of 14-18 bar, and speed of 1500-2500 rpm, are studied under constant fuel condition at each operating point. In the presence of EGR, burn durations are longer and combustion is more retard. At the same combustion phasing, the indicated specific fuel consumption improves because of a decrease in heat loss and an increase in the specific heat ratio. The knock limited spark advance increases substantially with EGR. This increase is due partly to a slower combustion which is equivalent to a spark retard, as manifested by a retarded value of the 50% burn point (CA50), and due partly to a slower ignition chemistry of the diluted charge, as manifested by the knock limited spark advance to beyond the value offered by the retarded CA50.
Technical Paper

Crevice Volume Effect on Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency

2014-10-13
2014-01-2602
The effects of piston top-land crevice size on the indicated net fuel conversion efficiency are assessed in a single cylinder SI engine with 465 cc displacement and 11.2 compression ratio. The operating conditions are at 3.6 and 5.6 bar net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), and at 1500 and 2000 rpm speeds. The cold crevice volume is varied from 524 mm3 to 1331 mm3 by changing the top land height from 3 to 7 mm, and by changing the top-land clearance from 0.247 to 0.586 mm. For a 100 mm3 increase in the top land crevice volume (estimated hot value), the indicated net fuel conversion efficiency decreases by 0.1 percentage point at 1500 rpm, and by 0.13 percentage points at 2000 rpm. The results are not sensitive to the two NIMEP values tested. These values are consistent with a simple crevice filling and discharge/oxidation model.
Journal Article

SI Engine Control in the Cold-Fast-Idle Period for Low HC Emissions and Fast Catalyst Light Off

2014-04-01
2014-01-1366
The engine and its exhaust flow behaviors are investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine under simulated cold-fast-idle condition. The metrics of interest are the exhaust sensible and chemical enthalpy flows, and the exhaust temperature, all of which affect catalyst light off time. The exhaust sensible enthalpy flow is mainly a function of combustion phasing; the exhaust chemical enthalpy flow is mainly a function of equivalence ratio. High sensible and chemical enthalpy flow with acceptable engine stability could be obtained with retarded combustion and enrichment. When split injection is employed with one early and one later and smaller fuel pulse, combustion retards with early secondary injection in the compression stroke but advances with late secondary injection. Comparing gasoline to E85, the latter produces a lower exhaust temperature because of charge cooling effect and because of a faster combustion.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1368
Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Journal Article

Effect of Operation Strategy on First Cycle CO, HC, and PM/PN Emissions in a GDI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0887
The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing, it does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air on the Exhaust Oxidation of Particulate Matters

2015-04-14
2015-01-0886
The effects of secondary air on the exhaust oxidation of particulate matters (PM) have been assessed in a direct-injection-spark-ignition engine under fuel rich fast idle condition (1200 rpm; 2 bar NIMEP). Substantial oxidation of the unburned feed gas species (CO and HC) and significant reduction of both the particulate number (up to ∼80%) and volume (up to ∼90%) have been observed. The PM oxidation is attributed to the reactions between the PM and the radicals generated in the oxidation of the feed gas unburned species. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the reduction in PM volume is proportional to the amount of heat release in the secondary oxidation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Air Temperature and Humidity on Gasoline HCCI Operating in the Negative-Valve-Overlap Mode

2007-04-16
2007-01-0221
The impact of intake air temperature and humidity on gasoline HCCI engine operation was assessed. The 2.3 L I4 production engine modified for single cylinder operation was controlled by using variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust valve in the negative-valve-overlap mode. Exhaust cam phasing was mainly used to control load, and intake cam phasing was mainly used to control combustion phasing. At stoichiometric condition, higher intake air temperature advanced combustion phasing and promoted knock, resulting in a 19% reduction of the Net Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (NIMEP) at the high load limit at 1500 rpm when intake temperature was changed from −10 to 100° C. Higher ambient humidity delayed combustion phasing. For stoichiometric operation, this delay allowed a small extension (a few tenths of a bar in NIMEP) in the high load limit when the moisture concentration was changed from 3 to 30 g/m3 (corresponding to 10-100% relative humidity at 28° C).
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Port Charge-Motion-Control-Valve on Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4013
The effects of the directed port flow produced by a Charge-Motion-Control-Valve (CMCV) on mixture preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection engine were assessed under conditions typical of fast idle in a cold start process. The port fuel was found to comprise two components: a “valve” puddle (at the vicinity of the valve) that built up quickly, and that was mainly responsible for the delivery of the fuel to the cylinder charge; a “port” puddle located significantly upstream. The latter was mainly created by the reverse back flow process and built up slowly. Although the fuel amounts in these two components were roughly the same, the latter did not significantly interact with the fuel transport to the cylinder charge. The CMCV only weakly affected the purging or filling time of the valve puddle, hence the dynamics of the fuel delivery process was not materially affected.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Windage Tray Blockage Effect on Aeration in the Oil Sump

2007-10-29
2007-01-4109
The windage tray effect on aeration in the engine sump was assessed by replacing much of the windage tray materials with wire meshes of various blockages. The mesh was to prevent direct impact of the oil drops spinning off the crank shaft onto the sump oil, and simultaneously, to provide sufficient drainage so that there was no significant build up of windage tray oil film that would interact with these droplets. Aeration at the oil pump inlet was measured by X-ray absorption in a production V-6 SI engine motoring at 2000 to 6000 rpm. Within experimental uncertainty, these windage tray changes had no effect on aeration. Thus activities in the sump such as the interaction of the oil drops spun from the crank shaft with the sump oil or with the windage tray, and the agitation of the sump oil by the crank case gas, were not major contributors to aeration at the pump inlet.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Strategy on HC Emissions in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine During Fast Idle

2006-10-16
2006-01-3400
The interaction of intake port gas flow with the fuel spray in a port-fuel-injection engine is studied to see whether there are opportunities to facilitate the mixture preparation process and to improve the HC emissions through this interaction. The operating regime of interest is the fast idle period in a cold start. For single pulse injection, the HC emissions were not sensitive to injection details for closed-valve injection; emissions increased with open-valve injection. Then a split injection strategy was used in which the fuel was divided into two pulses. The first pulse was delivered during valve-closed; the second pulse was injected in the back flow period. Under cold-valve conditions, a small benefit (compared to close valve injection) was obtained with a second pulse fuel of 25%: 6% decrease in Specific HC emissions and 4.5% increase in the fuel delivery fraction.
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

2007-01-23
2007-01-0044
A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Ethanol Utilization: High Efficiency and Low NOx in an Engine Operating on Simulated Reformed Ethanol

2008-10-06
2008-01-2415
The use of hydrogen as a fuel supplement for lean-burn engines at higher compression ratios has been studied extensively in recent years, with good promise of performance and efficiency gains. With the advances in reformer technology, the use of a gaseous fuel stock, comprising of substantially higher fractions of hydrogen and other flammable reformate species, could provide additional improvements. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a gas mixture of equal volumes of hydrogen, CO, and methane. It has recently been reported that this gas mixture can be produced by reforming of ethanol at comparatively low temperature, around 300C. Experiments were performed on a 1.8-liter passenger-car Nissan engine modified for single-cylinder operation. Special pistons were made so that compression ratios ranging from CR= 9.5 to 17 could be used. The lean limit was extended beyond twice stoichiometric (up to lambda=2.2).
Technical Paper

Effects of Variations in Market Gasoline Properties on HCCI Load Limits

2007-07-23
2007-01-1859
The impact of market-fuel variations on the HCCI operating range was measured in a 2.3L four-cylinder engine, modified for single-cylinder operation. HCCI combustion was achieved through the use of residual trapping. Variable cam phasing was used to maximize the load range at each speed. Test fuels were blended to cover the range of variation in select commercial fuel properties. Within experimental measurement error, there was no change in the low-load limit among the test fuels. At the high-load limit, some small fuel effects on the operating range were observed; however, the observed trends were not consistent across all the speeds studied.
Technical Paper

On HCCI Engine Knock

2007-07-23
2007-01-1858
Knock in a HCCI engine was examined by comparing subjective evaluation, recorded sound radiation from the engine, and cylinder pressure. Because HCCI combustion involved simultaneous heat release in a spatially large region, substantial oscillations were often found in the pressure signal. The time development of the audible signal within a knock cycle was different from that of the pressure trace. Thus the audible signal was not the attenuated transmission of the cylinder pressure oscillation but the sound radiation from the engine structure vibration excited by the initial few cycles of pressure oscillation. A practical knock limited maximum load point for the specific 2.3 L I4 engine under test (and arguably for engines of similar size and geometry) was defined at when the maximum rate of cycle-averaged pressure rise reached 5 MPa/ms.
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